- •Emotional distress examined prospectively across first decade after TBI
- •Individual symptoms showed similar patterns, but heterogeneity across participants
- •Five distinct trajectory types, including non-linear
- •Personal and injury-related factors predicted trajectories
- •Overall, emotional distress was dynamic, heterogenous, and often chronic
Main Outcome Measure
List of abbreviations:TBI (Traumatic brain injury), HADS (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale), GCS (Glasgow Coma Scale), PTA (Post-traumatic amnesia), CT (Computed tomography), BIC (Bayesian information criterion), OR (Odds ratio)
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The authors wish to acknowledge all participants for so kindly giving their time. We would also like to acknowledge Ms Meagan Carty and all staff at the Monash-Epworth Rehabilitation Research Centre involved in data collection.
Acknowledgment of any presentations of this material: None.
Acknowledgment of financial support
This work was supported by a grant funded by the Transport Accident Commission (TAC), through the Institute for Safety, Compensation and Recovery Research [grant number 135]. JC was supported by an Australian Government Research Training Program (RTP) Scholarship. Sponsors did not have any involvement in the study design; in the collection, analysis or interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; or in the decision to submit the article for publication.
Conflicts of interest: None.