Interactive Combinations Between Gait Speed and Physical Function at Acute Phase Can Predict the Physical Activity at 2 Years After Total Knee Arthroplasty Using Classification and Regression Tree Analysis

Published:January 24, 2023DOI:



      To clarify the interactive combinations of various clinical factors associated with physical activity (PA) at 2 years after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) using classification and regression tree (CART) analysis.


      A retrospective cohort study.


      A single university hospital.


      286 patients who underwent TKA (N=286).

      Main Outcome Measures

      PA was assessed preoperatively, 3 weeks, and 2 years after TKA. Physical functions, namely, 10 m walking test (10MWT), timed Up and Go test, 1-leg standing time, isometric knee extension and flexion strength, knee joint stability, knee pain, femora-tibial angle, and the passive knee extension and flexion angle, were measured before surgery as a baseline and 3 weeks after TKA as acute phase. CART analysis was conducted to clarify the interactive combinations that accurately predict the PA at 2 years after TKA.


      The results of CART analysis indicated that gait speed (≥1.05 m/s) at the acute phase after TKA was the primal predictor for the postoperative PA at 2 years. The highest postoperative PA at 2 years was determined by gait speed (≥1.05 m/s) and PA (>74.5) at the acute phase. The PA at baseline and at acute phase, as well as the body mass index were also selected as predictors of postoperative PA at 2 years.


      The present study suggested that acquiring gait speed (≥1.05 m/s) and PA (>74.5) in the postoperative acute phase is the predictive of a high PA at 2 years after TKA.


      List of abbreviations:

      BMI (body mass index), CART (classification and regression tree), FTA (femora-tibial angle), PA (physical activity), QOL (quality of life), R2 (coefficient of determination), TKA (total knee arthroplasty), TUG (timed Up and Go test), 10MWT (10 m walking test)
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