Influence of Sociodemographic Factors, Health Conditions, and Activity on Participation in People With Spinal Cord Injury in South Korea

Published:August 23, 2022DOI:



      To verify the causal relationship between sociodemographic factors, health conditions, and activities that influence the participation of people with spinal cord injury (SCI) using International Spinal Cord Injury (InSCI) Survey data and to investigate the moderation effects of environmental restrictions and health care system concerns.


      Cross-sectional community survey and structural equation model.


      SCI databases of the Korea National Rehabilitation Center and Korea Spinal Cord Injury Association.


      Community-dwelling adults (N=890) with SCI.


      Not applicable.

      Main Outcome Measures

      The InSCI questionnaire domains included sociodemographic factors, health conditions, activity, participation, environmental restrictions, and health system concerns. Sociodemographic factors included age, education, and income. Health conditions included bowel dysfunction, respiratory problems, and pain, among others. Activity included “daily routine” and “using hands,” among others. Participation included “interacting with people” and “intimate relationships,” among others. Environmental restrictions included “public places” and “negative attitudes,” among others. Health care system concerns included “nursing care” and “experience of being treated,” among others.


      The hypothesis that health conditions would have a significant effect on activity was supported because 51% of the total variance in activity factors was explained by health condition factors. The hypothesis that activity would have a significant effect on participation was also supported because 63.4% of total variance in participation factors was explained by activity factors. The moderation effect tests supported the hypotheses that health conditions, activity, and participation would differ depending on the extent of environmental restrictions as well as the extent of health system concerns.


      When formulating policies and recommendations to promote the participation of people with SCI living in the South Korean community, the influence of environmental restrictions and health systems as well as the causal influence of health conditions and activity should be considered.


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