List of abbreviations:CMS (Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services), WC (wheelchair)
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Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. Local coverage determination: power mobility devices (L33789). Updated January 1, 2020. Available at: https://go.cms.gov/3cZwPHb. Accessed March 3, 2020.
Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. Local coverage determination: wheelchair options/accessories (L33792). Updated January 1, 2020. Accessed July 1, 2021. Available at: https://www.cms.gov/medicare-coverage-database/details/article-details.aspx?articleid=52504&ver=36&bc=CAAAAAAAAAAA. Accessed March 3, 2020.
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Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services. Medicare Claims Processing Manual: Chapter 20 – Durable Medical Equipment, Prosthetics, Orthotics, and Supplies (DMEPOS) [Rev. 10840]. Revised June 11, 2021. Available at: https://www.cms.gov/Regulations-and-Guidance/Guidance/Manuals/Downloads/clm104c20.pdf. Accessed October 5, 2021.
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Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. Medicare Program Integrity Manual: Chapter 13 (rev. 863). Updated February 2, 2019. Available at: https://www.cms.gov/Regulations-and-Guidance/Guidance/Manuals/downloads/pim83c13.pdf. Accessed April 3, 2020.
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- Shoulder pain in persons with thoracic spinal cord injury: prevalence and characteristics.J Rehabil Med. 2008; 40: 277-283
- Upper extremity pain after spinal cord injury.Spinal Cord. 1999; 37: 191-195
- Biomechanical comparison of rising from two types of chairs.Phys Ther. 1985; 65: 1177-1183
- Effect of different seat heights during an incremental sit-to-stand exercise test on peak oxygen uptake in young, healthy women.J Sports Sci Med. 2016; 15: 410-416
- Risk factors for injurious falls: a prospective study.J Gerontol. 1991; 46: M161-M170
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- Trunk and upper extremity kinematics during sitting pivot transfers performed by individuals with spinal cord injury.Clin Biomech. 2008; 23: 279-290
- Reaction force and EMG analyses of wheelchair transfers.Percept Mot Skills. 1994; 79: 763-766
- Effect of different hand positions on trunk and shoulder kinematics and reaction forces in sitting pivot transfer.J Phys Ther Sci. 2015; 27: 2307-2311
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- Development and consumer validation of the Functional Evaluation in a Wheelchair (FEW) instrument.Disabil Rehabil. 2002; 24: 38-46
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- Effect of visual perception, visual function, cognition, and personality on power wheelchair user in adults.Assist Technol. 2005; 17: 108-121
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- Predicting cervical alignment required to maintain horizontal gaze based on global spinal alignment.Spine. 2016; 41: 1795-1800
- Neck discomfort of wheelchair users: effect of neck position.Disabil Rehab. 2004; 26: 9-15
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- Usage of tilt-in-space, recline, and elevation seating functions in natural environment of wheelchair users.J Rehabil Res Dev. 2008; 45: 973-984
Sprigle S. Measuring a power chair. Mobility Management Magazine. October 1, 2018. Available at: https://mobilitymgmt.com/Articles/2018/10/01/Measurements.aspx. Accessed April 9, 2020.
Colorado Department of Health Care Policy and Financing. Wheelchair benefit coverage standard: manual wheelchair bases, power mobility devices, wheelchair seating and wheelchair options and accessories. Issued November 13, 2015. Reviewed November 13, 2018. Available at:https://hcpf.colorado.gov/sites/hcpf/files/Wheelchair%20Benefit%20Coverage%20Standard.pdf#:~:text=BRIEF%20COVERAGE%20STATEMENT%20Durable%20medical%20equipment%20%28DME%29%20and,and%20suitable%20for%20use%20in%20a%20non-institutional%20setting. Accessed September 1, 2021.
ForwardHealth. Badger Care Plus and Medicaid: durable medical equipment [topic #1778]. n.d. Available at: https://www.forwardhealth.wi.gov/WIPortal/Subsystem/KW/Display.aspx?ia=1&p=1&sa=17&s=2&c=291&nt=Wheelchair±Seating±and±Positioning&adv=Y. Accessed September 1, 2021.
Iowa Department of Human Services. Power seat elevation for power wheelchairs [IME-DME-014]. Effective date February 3, 2014. Last revision date October 16, 2020. Available at:https://dhs.iowa.gov/sites/default/files/Power_Seat_Elevation_for_Power_Wheelchairs_06-21.pdf?090120211246. Accessed September 1, 2021.
Medi-Cal Provider Manuals. Durable medical equipment: wheelchair and wheelchair accessories guidelines part 2. Updated March 16, 2021. Available at: https://files.medi-cal.ca.gov/pubsdoco/Publications/masters-MTP/Part2/durawheelguide.pdf. Accessed March 25, 2021.
Minnesota Department of Human Services. Mobility devices. Revised August 28, 2020. Available at:https://www.dhs.state.mn.us/main/idcplg?IdcService=GET_DYNAMIC_CONVERSION&RevisionSelectionMethod=LatestReleased&dDocName=DHS16_140901#woa. Accessed September 1, 2021.
New York State Medicaid Program. Durable medical equipment, prosthetics, orthotics, and supplies: procedure codes and coverage guidelines (version 2021). July 1, 2021. Available at: https://www.emedny.org/ProviderManuals/DME/PDFS/DME_Procedure_Codes.pdf. Accessed September 1, 2021.
North Carolina Medicaid. Physical Rehabilitation Equipment and Supplies [Medicaid and Health Choice Clinical Coverage Policy No: 5A-1]. Amended October 1, 2020. Available at: https://medicaid.ncdhhs.gov/media/7930/open. Accessed September 1, 2021.
South Dakota Department of Social Services. South Dakota Medicaid Billing and Policy Manual: Durable medical equipment, prosthetics, orthotics, and supplies. Updated December, 2020. Available at: https://dss.sd.gov/docs/medicaid/providers/billingmanuals/DMEPOS.pdf. Accessed September 1, 2021.
Tenncare Medicaid. Rules of Tennessee Department of Finance and Administration Bureau of Tenncare [Chapter 1200-13-13]. Revised April, 2021. Available at: https://publications.tnsosfiles.com/rules/1200/1200-13/1200-13-13.20210415.pdf. Accessed September 1, 2021.
The Texas Medicaid & Healthcare Partnership. Texas Medicaid Provider Procedures Manual: Durable medical equipment, medical supplies, and nutritional products handbook [Provider Handbooks Volume 2]. July 2021. Available at: https://www.tmhp.com/sites/default/files/file-library/resources/provider-manuals/tmppm/pdf-chapters/2021/2021-07-july/2_DME_and_Supplies.pdf. Accessed September 1, 2021.
U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs. Clinical practice recommendations for motorized wheeled mobility devices: scooters, pushrim-activated power-assist wheelchairs, power wheelchairs, and power wheelchairs with enhanced function. September 14, 2004. Available at: https://www.prosthetics.va.gov/Docs/Motorized_Wheeled_Mobility_Devices.pdf. Accessed September 1, 2021.
Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernization Act of 2003, H.R. 1 108th Congress. 2003. Available at: https://bit.ly/37iFiYr. Accessed August 14, 2021.
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Ensuring Access to Quality Complex Rehabilitation Technology Act of 2019, H.R. 2408 116th Congress. 2019. Available at: https://bit.ly/304yJ3B. Accessed January 14, 2021.
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ITEM Coalition. RE: National Coverage Determination (“NCD”) Reconsideration Request for Medicare Coverage of Power Seat Elevation and Power Standing Systems in Group 3 Power Wheelchairs. Available at: https://itemcoalition.files.wordpress.com/2020/09/letter-to-cms-re.-request-for-reconsideration-of-ncd-for-mae.pdf. Accessed July 1, 2021.
Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. National Coverage Determination for Seat Lift (100-3, 280.4). May 1, 1989. Available at: https://go.cms.gov/35gJgfh. Published May 1, 1989. Accessed April 20, 2020.
Americans With Disabilities Act of 1990. Pub. L. No. 101-336, 104 Stat. 328. 1990. Available at: https://www.govinfo.gov/content/pkg/STATUTE-104/pdf/STATUTE-104-Pg327.pdf. Accessed July 28, 2021.
Department of Health and Human Services. Proposed rule: Medicare Program; Durable medical equipment, prosthetics, orthotics, and supplies (DMEPOS) policy issues and level II of the Healthcare Common Procedure Coding System (HCPCS) [CMS-1738-P]. October 27, 2020.
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Disclosures: Cara E. Masselink and Nicole LaBerge were paid for hours worked on the NCD Reconsideration Request by the Clinician Task Force. Additionally, Nicole LaBerge was paid for hours worked on the Policy Analysis. Ashley Detterbeck is a regional clinical education manager for Permobil, a major manufacturer of power wheelchairs with power seat elevation systems. Julie Piriano is vice president of Clinical Education for Quantum Rehab, a division of Pride Mobility Products Corporation and major manufacturer of power seat elevation systems.