SPECIAL COMMUNICATION| Volume 103, ISSUE 7, P1487-1498, July 2022

Reporting Guideline for RULER: Rasch Reporting Guideline for Rehabilitation Research: Explanation and Elaboration

Published:April 14, 2022DOI:


      • The Rasch Reporting Guideline for Rehabilitation Research (RULER) guideline, checklist, and article set uniform expectations on reporting Rasch Measurement (RM) studies.
      • The RULER guideline includes a framework and checklist of 59 recommendations.
      • Rehabilitation science will advance by transparent reporting of RM studies.
      • The RULER guideline, checklist, and article will evolve as the field develops consensus on best practices.
      • Consistent use of RM terminology will be a focus of a future task force.


      The Rasch Reporting Guideline for Rehabilitation Research (RULER) provides peer-reviewed, evidence-based, transparent, and consistent recommendations for reporting studies that apply Rasch Measurement (RM) Theory in a rehabilitation context. The purpose of the guideline is to ensure that authors, reviewers, and editors have uniform guidance about how to write and evaluate research on rehabilitation outcome assessments. The RULER statement includes an organizing framework and a checklist of 59 recommendations. This companion article supports the RULER statement by providing details about the framework, rationale for the domains and recommendations in the checklist and explaining why these considerations are important for improving consistency and transparency in reporting the results of RM studies. This article is not intended to describe how to conduct RM studies but provides rationale for the essential elements that authors should address in each domain. Consistency and transparency in reporting RM studies will advance rehabilitation research if authors consider these issues when planning their study and include the checklist when they submit their manuscript for peer review. A copy of the checklist can be found at [table 2 in].


      List of abbreviations:

      ACRM (American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine), cMDC (conditional minimally detectable change), CTT (classical test theory), DIF (differential item functioning), LID (local item dependence), MDC (minimally detectable change), M-ISIG (Measurement Interdisciplinary Special Interest Group), PCAR (Principal Component Analysis of Residuals), PROM (patient-reported outcome measure), PSI (person separation index), PSR (person separation reliability), RM (Rasch Measurement), RP (relative precision index), RULER (Rasch Reporting Guideline for Rehabilitation Research), RUMM (Rasch Unidimensional Measurement Model)
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      Linked Article

      • Rasch Reporting Guideline for Rehabilitation Research (RULER): the RULER Statement
        Archives of Physical Medicine and RehabilitationVol. 103Issue 7
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          The application of Rasch Measurement (RM) Theory to rehabilitation assessments has proliferated in recent years. RM Theory helps design and refine assessments so that items reflect a unidimensional construct in an equal interval metric that distinguishes among persons of different abilities in a manner that is consistent with the underlying trait. Rapid growth of RM in rehabilitation assessment studies has led to inconsistent results reporting. Clear, consistent, transparent reporting of RM Theory results is important for advancing rehabilitation science and practice based on precise measures.
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