The COVID-19 pandemic has increased rates and severity of intimate partner violence
The pandemic has amplified existing challenges for Indigenous & remote communities
Increased awareness of brain injury is needed among survivors and professionals
Healthcare professionals need to be better equipped to support survivors
Peer navigators are a powerful support for survivors
Intimate partner violence (IPV) affects one in three women and has intensified during the COVID-19 pandemic. Although most injuries are to the head, face, and neck, the intersection of IPV and traumatic brain injury (TBI) remains largely unrecognized. This paper reports on COVID-19-related impacts, barriers, needs, and priorities to healthcare and support services for women survivors of IPV-TBI.
Using a participatory research model, we engaged 30 stakeholders in virtual meetings drawn from an IPV-TBI Knowledge to Practice (K2P) Network including women survivors, service providers, researchers, and decision makers. Data was gathered through small group breakout sessions facilitated by the research team using semi-structured discussion guides. Sessions were recorded, transcribed verbatim transcripts, and analysed using thematic analysis techniques. Stakeholders were given the opportunity to contribute to the analysis and knowledge transfer through member checking activities. Ethics approval was obtained through the University of Toronto.
COVID-19 has increased rates and severity of IPV and barriers to services and help-seeking. These effects are exacerbated by infrastructure difficulties in rural and remote areas, including limited access to services. Implications of virtual care such as safety, privacy, and usability require careful consideration. Requests from survivors for peer support have increased significantly, indicating more formalized and better-supported peer roles are needed. An overwhelming lack of awareness of the intersection of IPV-TBI continues. Increasing education and awareness among healthcare and IPV service providers, survivors, and the public remains a priority.
The COVID-19 pandemic has intensified IPV-TBI, increased challenges for women survivors, and accentuated the continued lack of IPV-TBI awareness. Key recommendations for healthcare and rehabilitation to address this priority are discussed.
Abbreviations: IPV, Intimate Partner Violence; TBI, Traumatic Brain Injury; K2P, Knowledge to Practice
Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) is a significant public health concern affecting one in three women in their lifetime.1, 2 The most common injuries experienced by IPV survivors result from battery to the head, face, and neck, including strangulation,3 which leaves survivors at risk of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Strangulation can deprive the brain of oxygen and nutrients, resulting in hypoxic brain injury.4, 5 Hypoxic brain injury and TBI pose similar challenges to survivors of IPV, and both are often overlooked.4-7 Up to 75% of survivors have a probable TBI, which is often inferred from violence history and symptom reports.4, 8-10 Women with disability, including TBI, are also at higher risk of experiencing IPV.11, 12 Combined, IPV and TBI (IPV-TBI) are associated with significant cognitive, physical, and mental health challenges that can be transient or lead to longer term disability.13-15 Untreated, these challenges lead to substantial social and economic repercussions, such as high rates of unemployment, poverty, and homelessness, and increased social and health-related support costs.8, 16-18
The COVID-19 pandemic has intensified IPV globally, a crisis referred to as the shadow pandemic.19, 20 Canada's Minister for Women and Gender Equality consulted with frontline organizations across the country who estimated Canadian rates of IPV have increased up to 30%,21 accompanied by higher levels of severity21 and more demand for emergency shelter.22 Physical IPV, in particular has increased, resulting in a greater number of more severe injuries.23 Simultaneously, many victim services organizations saw a decline in new clients, which has been attributed to women being trapped and having limited opportunities to report their victimization22 as well as a fear of COVID-19 exposure in shelters or hospitals.23 In remote and rural communities, a survey of over 250 Indigenous women reported one in five experienced physical or psychological violence in the first three months of the pandemic.24 This is compounding the pre-pandemic rates of violence in northern communities, with 74% of Inuit women in Nunavik experiencing violence in the home, and 46% experiencing sexual assault.25 Pandemic-related factors, including scarce resources due to disruption of livelihoods;19 lack of adaptive coping strategies;26 and increased opportunities for power, control, and manipulation by perpetrators,27 have been linked to these alarming rates. Although the World Health Organization has called on governments to include measures to address IPV as part of their pandemic emergency preparedness and response plans,28 TBI continues to be overlooked as a dire and prevalent consequence of IPV and its many health, social, and economic repercussions.29
To address these gaps in IPV-TBI specific services during the COVID-19 pandemic, an emergency two-day summit was called, supported by Parachute with funding from the Community Foundations of Canada's Emergency Community Support Fund and by the Acquired Brain Injury Research Lab at the University of Toronto with funding from the Canada Research Chair Program. The summit brought together stakeholders including service providers, survivors, and researchers from IPV, TBI, and healthcare sectors with two objectives: (1) to identify key needs, facilitators, and barriers to care for women survivors of IPV presenting with TBI, both specific to the COVID-19 pandemic and more broadly, and (2) to co-create ideas for resources and principles for identification, clinical care, and support for healthcare practitioners who treat women exposed to IPV-TBI. As there were rich and varied discussions around these topics, this paper reports findings on COVID-19 related impacts, needs, priorities, facilitators, and barriers to healthcare and support services for women survivors of IPV-TBI. Additional findings are reported elsewhere.30
Using a community-based participatory research approach,31, 32 an emergency summit consisting of two virtual meetings, three weeks apart was convened with key stakeholders from the IPV, TBI, and healthcare sectors. Participants were able to stop their participation and/or remove their data at any point up to the publication of this manuscript; however, at the time of this publication, no participants have chosen to withdraw. Approval for this research was granted by the Research Ethics Board at the University of Toronto (Protocol #39927).
Participants & Recruitment
Key stakeholders were recruited directly from a Knowledge to Practice (K2P) Network and using snowball sampling. The K2P Network is an informal, pan-Canadian network of service providers, persons with lived experience, decision-makers, and researchers who have expertise in healthcare delivery, gender-based violence, IPV, and/or TBI, developed by members of the research team from the Acquired Brain Injury Research Lab since 2015.33 Interested stakeholders were provided study information including the consent package, a demographic questionnaire, resources for emotional support, and discussion questions. All stakeholders provided written informed consent prior to participating in the summits.
These summits involved 30 stakeholders from across Canada, 12 from the IPV sector, six from the TBI sector, seven from the healthcare sector, and four from population-specific advocacy organizations. 27 stakeholders participated in one or both virtual summits and three additional stakeholders provided written comments. Many stakeholders self-identified as working in TBI advocacy/support or IPV advocacy/support and had an average of 17.4 ± 8.3 years of experience working in their sector. As is the case in many advocacy and support organizations, many participants identified as survivors of IPV and/or TBI. Most participants were women (93%); 67% identified as white and 26% identified as having a disability. Stakeholder representation and participant characteristics for 27 participants who completed demographic forms are displayed in Table 1
and Table 2
Table 1Stakeholder Representation
Table 2Participant Characteristics
Data Collection & Analysis
Discussion questions were designed to obtain in-depth information on the following topics: knowledge and service gaps, knowledge transfer tools and approaches, service provision and implementation, and COVID-19 related impacts. Breakout sessions and group discussions lasting 40-60 minutes were facilitated by members of the research team, audio-recorded, and transcribed by an external transcription service.
Qualitative data were analyzed using thematic analysis techniques,34, 35 using descriptive codes, which were then grouped into broader, topic-oriented categories. Key themes were identified following multiple meetings with the team for review and consensus which were then developed into a master coding scheme. To be identified as a theme, a topic needed to be discussed across multiple focus groups or to have achieved agreement among all participants within one focus group. All transcripts and individual written comments were then analyzed using this coding scheme. Synthesized member checking, a method of member checking used both to confirm and clarify emergent themes as well as allow for further comment,36 was used during and after the meetings to validate and gather feedback on a summary of the findings and drafts of this manuscript.
As these findings were part of a larger conversation seeking input on broader issues of gaps in IPV-TBI knowledge and services within healthcare, much of the discussion was focused on gaps that existed pre-COVID and have subsequently been exacerbated. While many of the themes from the larger conversations were similar to those focused on COVID-related experiences, there are striking COVID-related challenges to be recognized which have been grouped into three main themes: (1) Impacts of COVID-19 on women survivors of IPV-TBI; (2) Priority areas for support; and (3) Barriers and facilitators to support services. The following sections discuss these themes with supporting stakeholder comments found in Table 3
, Table 4
, Table 5
, Table 6
, Table 7
, Table 8
, Table 9
, Table 10
, Table 11
Table 3Stakeholder Quotes - Increase in rates and severity of intimate partner violence
Impacts of COVID-19 on women survivors of IPV-TBI
Increase in rates and severity of intimate partner violence
Stakeholders reported an increase in women at shelters and emergency departments who have experienced extreme violence, resulting in more significant injuries. Stakeholders from advocacy and support organizations noted an increase in survivors reaching out for support, including women who had never sought support in the past, while stakeholders working in healthcare similarly noted an increase in intimate partner violence related calls and women presenting with more significant injuries. Individuals with disability, including TBI, were noted as being particularly at risk for IPV and increased violence. Some mentioned an initial lull in calls during the first wave, likely due to fear of virus exposure, that reversed as restrictions lifted. Many attributed the increase in IPV to the loss of coping mechanisms for the survivor and the perpetrator. With physical distancing measures and widespread shutdowns, access to informal supports have been interrupted, potentially causing more violence. The impact of COVID-19 on survivors’ families and the added stress of parenting were also discussed, including increased exposure for children, many of whom are remote learning, and parenting pressures on survivors, with formal and informal child-care supports unavailable. Other factors thought to increase the risk of violence included increased stressors (e.g., lack of resources and support, food insecurity, job loss) and social isolation, making it difficult for the survivor's community to recognize signs of abuse. It was also noted that the lack of race- and cultural-based data has led to an incomplete picture, with the interaction of COVID with pre-existing structural inequities being overlooked, particularly among First Nations and Inuit communities. A sample of supporting quotes for this theme from stakeholders are presented in Table 3
Availability of and access to services
IPV services, particularly those which are charitable organizations, were identified by stakeholders as being significantly impacted by the pandemic, experiencing decreased revenue generation from sponsorships, fundraising activities, and donations. Service shut-downs, staff lay-offs, and limited access to volunteers due to public health restrictions led to services operating at reduced capacity with fewer staff dealing with a larger number of clients. COVID-19 also resulted in barriers to help-seeking among survivors who may be experiencing increased surveillance or fear, preventing them from disclosing IPV or seeking help, despite having knowledge of protective measures. Stakeholders questioned what contracting COVID-19 might mean for survivors seeking help and getting the care they need; specific concern was noted with the neurological implications of COVID-19 and how that may intersect with an existing brain injury. Along with the fear of COVID-19 came the perception that services were either shut down or only offered virtually due to public health restrictions. This raised barriers to care, including access to technological devices and Wi-Fi and issues around security and privacy, both further explored below. Stakeholders noted that one positive outcome of the pandemic was bringing communities together to care for one-another. One example provided was a mutual aid society started in a Facebook group supporting community food security.
Stakeholders also spoke about the ongoing impact of the pandemic on housing services and supports for survivors. While some support for survivors was provided early on through temporary spaces in hotels, this has since waned. Some discussed moving away from major cities, as people want to get out of crowded spaces; however, this may make the cost of living even less affordable for people in need of housing. Differences in rental markets were also noted, with some regions having a dearth of available housing and others seeming to have an increased supply. Stakeholders emphasized the need for women to have safe places to go. A sample of supporting quotes are presented in Table 4
Table 4Stakeholder Quotes - Availability of and access to services
Table 5Stakeholder Quotes - Impact on remote and rural communities
Table 6Stakeholder Quotes - Increasing awareness among survivors and the public
Table 7Stakeholder Quotes – Cross-sector education and awareness
Table 8Stakeholder Quotes - Peer support and navigator models
Table 9Stakeholder Quotes - Technology as a support and an obstacle
Table 10Stakeholder Quotes - Leveraging local expertise
Table 11Stakeholder Quotes - Functional supports
Impact on remote and rural communities
Stakeholders reported the amplified effects of COVID-19 in remote and rural communities including Indigenous communities, which experienced a lack of services and resources long before the pandemic started. Many communities have put restrictions on inbound travel, resulting in women seeking care being sent away from their communities. Stakeholders shared that some regions only have traveling physicians, forcing survivors to repeat their story each time they see a different provider, which can result in revictimizing/retraumatizing the survivor and may serve as a barrier to seeking care. Many Indigenous communities had limited or no immediate access to healthcare services even before the pandemic, which has only been exacerbated. Consequently, women survivors are required to travel to large urban centres to receive support that is often not culturally safe. Broader reductions in medical travel favouring the use of telemedicine and virtual care have made access to healthcare even more difficult. Specifically, many survivors living in remote and rural communities face infrastructure challenges, often lacking the devices or connectivity required to access virtual care and are thus harder to reach. Stakeholders feared that these women may be further excluded, as the pandemic pushes more services to move online. Crowded living conditions and the public health mandate to limit interactions outside one's household have removed survivors’ option of going to stay with a neighbour or family member, which is particularly problematic in communities where there is no access to shelters. The pandemic has also exacerbated existing difficulties in getting supplies to the more remote communities.
Priority areas for support
Increasing awareness among survivors and the public
The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in considerable disruption to supports and services, with some offering modified in-person services, some moving to virtual care, and others closing entirely. Stakeholders discussed the need to increase awareness of service availability during the pandemic, noting how important it is for survivors to be aware of shelters, hospital treatment centres, and community services they can call for help. Aligned with this is the need to support survivors in navigating the new ways of accessing these services (e.g., remote access using technologies), which may be more difficult for survivors living with brain injury who have cognitive or memory challenges.
Communication through a multitude of channels, such as Facebook, radio, or local community newsletters, were noted as preferred platforms for accessing information, particularly in remote communities, with stakeholders noting successes using these channels in their organizations. Government or organization webpages were reported as being less useful for dissemination, as survivors do not look for information there. Stakeholders shared some strategies they used to spread awareness, such as using printed materials instead of online media, and working with grocery stores, libraries, pharmacies, community health centres, family physician's offices, and faith-based communities, so that these materials are placed in spaces that are frequented by women survivors.
Cross-sector education and awareness
With the exacerbation of IPV and the subsequent increased risk for TBI, stakeholders discussed the urgency of educating healthcare providers to recognize signs of IPV-TBI and to provide support for survivors. Emergency department staff may be missing signs of IPV-TBI, as the focus is typically on treating immediate, visible injuries. This also spoke to a larger concern around COVID's impact on a survivor's ability to manage their healthcare needs, discussed in the availability of and access to services theme. Stakeholders suggested education strategies for healthcare professionals including curriculum changes for healthcare trainees, developing, and mandating continuing education credits, and making use of meetings where providers are kept up to date about COVID-related information to remind providers of the IPV-TBI intersection and the specific impacts facing survivors during the pandemic.
Finding appropriate care in general is a noted challenge among survivors of IPV-TBI with providers in the IPV sector being unaware of the resources and supports available in the TBI sector and vice versa. Stakeholders noted the challenges this can cause for survivors navigating the system. One suggestion to ameliorate this challenge was more education across sectors about the resources and supports available outside an individual provider's area of expertise. In this way, even if one provider does not have the expertise to support a survivor in a particular area, they will have awareness of other professions or agencies and can help the survivor find the care they need. To this end, stakeholders spoke of the importance of interdisciplinary and cross-sectoral collaborations in supporting survivors but noted the difficulty in developing these partnerships. Many stakeholders citing examples from their own experience where collaboration and partnership made a notable difference in their organizations’ awareness of IPV-TBI and the support they were then able to provide; however, they also noted that funding to support the time to develop those relationships is needed.
Peer Support and Navigator Models
Throughout the discussion, stakeholders emphasized the need for survivors to have someone they can go to for support. Peer supports featured most prominently in this discussion, specifically from women with lived experience of IPV-TBI and the various systems and structures a survivor must navigate from the survivor perspective. Stakeholders reported an increase in requests for peer supports during the COVID-19 pandemic, highlighting the desire among survivors to connect with someone who truly understands their experience. There was strong agreement among stakeholders that finding some way to formalize access to peer supports was critical. It was additionally noted peer support should be funded to allow for better access to peer support, which is currently inconsistent and reliant on meeting a survivor who shares their experience and agrees to stay in touch or finding an organization that's developed their own network. Survivors should be given the option to connect with other survivors in a peer-support capacity should they choose. Spinal cord injury peer support networks were highlighted as one successful model that could inform a similar network for survivors of IPV-TBI.
Related to the concept of peer support was an emphasis on the need for support navigating the myriad systems that survivors may interact with. Particularly for survivors of IPV-TBI with children, there are medical, legal, childcare, brain injury, housing, and IPV systems that must all be juggled, each with their own forms and appointments and unique quirks. For any individual, this can be overwhelming, but especially so for survivors of trauma and brain injury. A system navigator who could support the survivor in finding the care they need and the logistical requirements of accessing that care in a way that is culturally relevant and safe is critical.
Barriers and Facilitators to Service Delivery and Access
Technology as a support and an obstacle
With many services moving to virtual care, technology is an indispensable need during the pandemic. Technology was identified throughout conversations as both a potential barrier and a potential facilitator. Although virtual services enabled ongoing access to programs, several stakeholders shared that some clients are much more difficult to reach virtually. Stakeholders expressed particular concern for survivors who struggle with technology (e.g., due to TBI-related cognitive challenges) or do not have access to the appropriate devices or network connections (e.g., lack of infrastructure in rural and remote communities) to facilitate virtual care. Stakeholders raised concerns about the impacts of virtual care on individuals with TBI, both in terms of the physiological symptoms, such as headaches or visual sensory issues, and in cognitive capacity to learn and work with a new platform. Regardless the modality, stakeholders highlighted how important it was to ‘keep showing up’ for survivors, noting that, in their experience, the effort to do so did not go unnoticed.
Safety and privacy were also noted concerns, especially for women living with abusive partners. Stakeholders reported having little control over their virtual environment. For example, perpetrators may enter the virtual room without their knowledge. If survivors are at home with the perpetrator or their children during the appointment, they may be unable to disclose information, further masking possible signs of IPV-TBI. Similarly, providers may not be able to diagnose conditions via virtual care, delaying access to care and healing, frustrating survivors, and leaving women at risk of further injury.
Leveraging local expertise
Stakeholders emphasized working with local expertise in supporting survivors as a significant facilitator to service provision, both during the pandemic and beyond. For Indigenous communities, working with Indigenous-led services and culturally safe service providers was highlighted as critical. Local brain injury associations were also noted as a valuable resource for survivors of IPV-TBI, as they are often one of the only brain injury resources that do not require a formal diagnosis to access supports. However, stakeholders also acknowledged that brain injury associations are already overwhelmed due to the lack of supporting infrastructure for individuals with a brain injury without a diagnosis. Funding for brain injury associations, which are often non-profits who rely on grant funding or fundraising, has also been impacted by COVID. Opportunities for cross-training and generally building rapport with communities, individuals with lived experience and expertise, and service providers was one example provided of a means of building capacity and increasing meaningful access to services.
Throughout the pandemic, there has been messaging using the metaphor ‘we're all in the same boat.’ However, our discussions with stakeholders emphasized the fact that we are not in the same boat, but rather in the same storm – some individuals have big, well-equipped yachts, while others are in small, broken-down rowboats. One key barrier that many stakeholders discussed was the metaphorical boat each survivor has in this storm. Access to safe, adequate housing and financial resources were discussed as two critical pieces in supporting survivors that often end up as barriers. Both the lack of availability of these resources, notably in First Nations and northern communities, and high bureaucratic requirements to access them were discussed as common barriers in these areas.
COVID has also been recognized as an amplifier of existing systemic inequities. Systemic racism in healthcare, chronic underfunding of Indigenous communities, a dearth of supports tailored to LGBTQ2S+ IPV survivors, and a lack of fully accessible services or supports for disability organizations in supporting IPV survivors are all pre-existing issues faced by IPV survivors and the sectors providing supports. The COVID-19 pandemic has shone light on these cracks in our system and worsened them, highlighting an urgent need to address them in our efforts to ‘build back better.’
The COVID-19 pandemic has amplified the shadow pandemic of IPV, increasing the rates and severity of violence.19-21 The pandemic has also shed light on pre-existing inequities, barriers, and structural flaws that failed to support survivors long before the pandemic started and will continue to fail survivors unless there are systemic changes. Over the course of the two-day summit, 30 stakeholders from across Canada representing the IPV, TBI, and healthcare sectors highlighted several key considerations for IPV-TBI in relation to the COVID-19 pandemic. Importantly, stakeholders verified the increased rates and severity of violence among IPV-TBI survivors and the myriad of factors that may contribute to that increase. The strain on support services was acknowledged, along with uncertainty and confusion among survivors around what services were still available and how to access them.
For services now offered virtually, access to and knowledge of technology were noted barriers for survivors, particularly among survivors with brain injury who may encounter cognitive challenges in using new technology or physical challenges with the increased screen use and for those living in remote areas with infrastructure barriers who may not have access to the bandwidth or the technology required. The significant technological challenges that survivors face in relation to TBI symptoms and violence-related safety and privacy concerns were also emphasized by stakeholders in this study as well as in existing commentaries and emerging evidence.37-39 While a few articles have provided suggestions to address IPV-related safety and privacy concerns,37, 38, 40 there continues to be a gap in support strategies, particularly for navigating technological services, including essential services and healthcare, and altered in-person services (e.g., lack of aid and family support) for survivors who are also living with a TBI.39
Several priority areas were identified through the summits. Combatting an overall lack of awareness of the intersection of IPV and TBI among survivors and the public through general awareness campaigns was noted as a priority. Equipping survivors and their support networks with a better understanding of the intersection and signs and symptoms of TBI empowers them to better identify and advocate for their needs. A lack of knowledge among healthcare professionals and service providers was also noted. Commentaries on gender-based violence and TBI in women since the pandemic drew attention to the potential surge in IPV-related TBIs, an increase in invisible trauma, and the urgent need for awareness of this intersection among clinicians across sectors.29, 39
To this end, guided by this summit's findings and in consultation with the participating stakeholders, we developed two resources to increase awareness and understanding of IPV-TBI. The first was designed to increase awareness and understanding of IPV-TBI among healthcare providers to facilitate identification and treatment. The second was designed more broadly for survivors and frontline workers outside the healthcare field to increase awareness of common signs and symptoms as well as ways to support survivors. These newly developed resources are currently distributed in English and French and freely available on the Abused and Brain Injured Toolkit
). They have also been requested and adapted by several health service organizations across the country. Stakeholders suggested awareness and education should be further expanded to include support for collaborations and partnerships. Though service providers do not need to be able to address all a survivor's needs, they should be able to support the survivor in finding the expertise to fill any gaps. Finally, the development and support of peer models and navigator roles were deemed critical. Several stakeholders noted that survivors have been asking for connections to peers and shared examples of the positive impact of both peer supports and navigators. There are several existing peer support models used in healthcare, including in spinal cord injury, that could be adapted to serve survivors of IPV-TBI.
Stakeholders’ accounts further emphasized the importance of recognizing the unique needs of IPV survivors with brain injury to ensure equitable access to trauma-informed and culturally safe care. Natural disasters and economic crises are known to increase the incidence of IPV, increasing the stressors that contribute to violence;41, 42 however, there is a dearth of research looking at TBI in these contexts. This research is the first, to our knowledge, to explore the intersection of IPV-TBI in the context of not only the COVID-19 pandemic, but also the broader domain of social and economic turmoil. While this call for TBI and IPV awareness is not new, the COVID-19 pandemic has magnified the experience of violence and, with noted increases in prevalence and severity, reinforced the need for appropriate supports for IPV survivors with brain injury and increased awareness among health professionals such as rehabilitation providers.
Finally, though IPV-TBI prevention was not a focus during the summits, we acknowledge that preventing IPV, and resultant TBI, should be the ultimate goal and will require a foundational societal shift. Our social, legal, and healthcare systems must be equipped to better identify individuals at risk of perpetrating IPV as well as those likely to be at risk of experiencing it for preventative intervention. Support of perpetrators, ensuring they have a supportive network and access to the required care and healing they require, is also critical for helping to break their patterns of abuse.
The findings presented here are based on a small, emergency summit. Though we strove for representation from diverse perspectives across Canada, the full diversity of survivor and provider experiences cannot be captured in a 30-person summit. Participants were recruited through our existing K2P network and via snowball sampling, meaning most were at least aware of the intersection of IPV-TBI. Providers or survivors without knowledge of the intersection may identify different concerns than those raised by this group.
This summit builds upon a previous Canadian multisectoral summit on the intersection of IPV and TBI held in Toronto, Ontario in 2016 co-led by members of the research team, where education, research, and service provision around IPV-TBI were stated priorities.33
The K2P Network33
was developed as a result of this summit, laying the foundation for a national initiative to address critical gaps in knowledge and service provision. The K2P Network now consists of over 300 stakeholders across Canada and is still growing. Also resulting from the previous summit was the development of the Abused and Brain Injured Toolkit
), the first resource created specifically for Canada in direct response to needs expressed by service providers, women survivors, healthcare professionals, and researchers.43
Though initially developed from the findings of the 2016 summit, the Toolkit is a living resource, being expanded and adapted as knowledge in this field grows, including as a result of the summit reported on here. The Toolkit and related knowledge mobilization activities have resulted in changes to service design and policy among service providers, healthcare professionals, and the policing sector.44
Finally, the senior author has been funded through a Tier 1 Canada Research Chair in TBI in Underserved Populations that has a major focus on TBI in the IPV context and provides infrastructure support for the Toolkit
and knowledge translation activities.
While progress has undoubtedly been made since, there is still much to be done. Awareness of IPV-TBI was flagged by stakeholders as the most important action needed to support survivors. Therefore, education and awareness campaigns for survivors and the general public, as well as service and healthcare providers are needed. For physicians, rehabilitation professionals, and other healthcare providers, there is a need for broader education on how to address IPV-TBI among clients and integrate this knowledge into practice. Tailored resources are needed that can be used to improve patient education on the intersection between IPV and TBI and available supportive resources. There is work to be done across healthcare professions in developing and implementing protocols to better identify and support survivors of IPV-TBI. Stakeholders also emphasized the need for research that is inclusive and diverse to meet the needs of under-represented populations, such as Black and Indigenous women survivors of IPV-TBI. It is also important to develop in-person and online IPV-TBI service delivery models, sensitive to relevant safety and trauma-related needs, that can be continued beyond the current pandemic. Having identified important future directions for this field, ongoing work is needed to ensure progress to support survivors of IPV-TBI. The findings presented here will inform our research moving forward. It is our hope that the findings further provide an evidence base for stakeholders - those who participated, members of the K2P Network, and beyond – to help inform local, provincial, and national initiatives for planning, funding requests, and policy development.
The COVID-19 pandemic has exacerbated rates and severity of IPV globally, putting survivors at increased risk for TBI. Our two-day emergency summit highlighted the need for action on this neglected public health issue, including increasing awareness of IPV-TBI among healthcare providers including rehabilitation service providers, ensuring accessible and equitable services for survivors, and integrating this intersection into national policy strategies addressing gender-based violence.
Contributors & Acknowledgements
This work would not have been possible without the active participation and engagement of the stakeholders, included in the authorship as the ‘COVID TBI-IPV Consortium.’ These stakeholders include:
Hilda Anderson Pyrz- Manager, Missing and Murdered Indigenous Women and Girls Liaison Unit, Manitoba Keewatinowi Okimakanak Inc
Michelle Bartlett McLaughlin,
Shirley Broekstra RN, MEd,
Tori Dach, Geoffrey Sing, and Candace Stretch - The Cridge Centre for the Family,
DAWN Canada (DisAbled Women's Network of Canada)
Melissa Kimber - McMaster University,
Sheila Macdonald - Director, Ontario Network of Sexual Assault/Domestic Violence Treatment Centres
Michelle McDonald - Brain Injury Canada,
Nadia Noor - Pauktuutit Inuit Women of Canada.
Kix Citton - Nanaimo Brain Injury Society (Nanaimo, British Columbia, Canada),
Jade Byard Peek - Peek - Director of Advocacy, Kind Space (Ottawa, Ontario, Canada)
Maud Pontel - L' Alliance des maisons de 2e étape pour femmes et enfants victimes de violence conjugale
Heather Imming - Survivor, Ontario Office for Victims of Crime;
Jean Quinn – Survivor, Kingston Anti-Violence Advisory Council, Kingston Chapter of Women at the Centre,
Deirdre Reddick - Kingston Anti-Violence Advisory Council, Kingston Chapter of Women at the Centre,
Lyn Turkstra - McMaster University
Melissa Vigar - Brain Injury Society of Toronto
Catherine Wiseman-Hakes - McMaster University, KITE Research Institute, UHN-Toronto Rehabilitation Institute
We would also like to thank Vincy Chan, Amy Moore, Samira Omar, and Kristen Reilly for their support during the summits themselves.
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Appendix. Supplementary materials
Received in revised form:
Publication stageIn Press Journal Pre-Proof
Author contributions: This study was conceptualized and designed by Colantonio, Haag, Cowle, Fuselli, and Ellis, who then organized the summit with the support of Toccalino and Gargaro. Data was collected, coded, and analyzed by Haag, Toccalino, Estrella, and Cowle, which was then reviewed and approved by the remainder of the authorship team. Estrella and Toccalino drafted the manuscript, which was then critically revised and approved by all authors.
Funding Statement: This research was funded by the Community Foundations of Canada's Emergency Community Support Fund with support from a Canada Research Chair in Underserved Populations held by Dr. Colantonio.
Conflicts of Interest: The authors have no conflicts of interest to report.
Addressing the Shadow Pandemic: COVID-19 Related Impacts, Barriers, Needs, and Priorities to Healthcare and Support for Women Survivors of Intimate Partner Violence and Brain Injury
© 2022 Published by Elsevier Inc. on behalf of The American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine.