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Community-Based Exercise Programs for Cancer Survivors: A Scoping Review of Program Characteristics Using the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research

Open AccessPublished:August 07, 2021DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apmr.2021.06.026

      Abstract

      Objective

      To describe the characteristics of exercise programs for survivors of cancer conducted outside of a research laboratory (ie, home-based or community-based settings).

      Data Sources

      A systematic search of published literature was conducted using Medline, Pubmed, Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature, PsycINFO, SPORTdiscus, and Embase from 1980 to January 2021. Where conference abstracts were identified, authors were contacted for other articles.

      Study Selection

      Two independent reviewers screened titles and abstracts and full texts of potentially relevant studies to determine eligibility, with discrepancies resolved by discussion. Included studies were reports of exercise programs or interventions in which participants exercise at home or in a community-based setting and including individuals diagnosed with cancer either undergoing treatment or who had completed treatment.

      Data Extraction

      Data were extracted using the Oxford Implementation Index and coded under the 5 domains of the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR). Extraction and coding were completed by 2 independent reviewers, with discrepancies resolved through discussion. Data were synthesized narratively according to CFIR.

      Data Synthesis

      A total of 58 publications describing 34 individual programs from around the world were included. Of these, only 14 publications had the specific goal of reporting on program implementation and development. A variety of intervention characteristics and characteristics of individuals involved in the intervention were described. Reporting of factors related to the CFIR domains of inner setting, outer setting, and implementation process were minimal.

      Conclusions

      This review summarizes the characteristics of existing programs that have been reported in the literature and finds that partnerships and collaboration occur in the inner and outer settings and as part of the process of implementation. This review highlights key knowledge gaps to be answered to support the development of future community-based interventions.

      Keywords

      List of abbreviations:

      CFIR (Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research)
      Exercise is recommended as an intervention to help manage side effects of cancer and its treatment both during the active treatment phase (ie, chemotherapy, radiation) and into the posttreatment phase.
      • Schmitz KH
      • Campbell AM
      • Stuiver MM
      • et al.
      Exercise is medicine in oncology: engaging clinicians to help patients move through cancer.
      Evidence from randomized controlled trials conducted within research settings has shown the efficacy of exercise in reducing fatigue, improving cardiovascular fitness and muscular strength, and improving quality of life in individuals diagnosed with cancer.
      • Oberoi S
      • Robinson PD
      • Cataudella D
      • et al.
      Physical activity reduces fatigue in patients with cancer and hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized trials.
      • Segal R
      • Zwaal C
      • Green E
      • et al.
      Exercise for people with cancer: a systematic review.
      • Stout NL
      • Baima J
      • Swisher AK
      • Winters-Stone KM
      • Welsh J
      A systematic review of exercise systematic reviews in the cancer literature (2005-2017).
      Building on evidence from randomized controlled trials, a number of guidelines have been published from both exercise-focused organizations
      • Schmitz KH
      • Courneya KS
      • Matthews C
      • et al.
      American College of Sports Medicine roundtable on exercise guidelines for cancer survivors.
      ,
      • Hayes SC
      • Newton RU
      • Spence RR
      • Galvao DA
      The Exercise and Sports Science Australia position statement: exercise medicine in cancer management.
      and clinical oncology associations
      • Cormie P
      • Atkinson M
      • Bucci L
      • et al.
      Clinical Oncology Society of Australia position statement on exercise in cancer care.
      ,
      • Segal R
      • Zwaal C
      • Green E
      • et al.
      Exercise for people with cancer: a clinical practice guideline.
      to support the role of exercise for survivors of cancer (defined from the point of diagnosis until the end of life
      • Mullan F
      Seasons of survival: reflections of a physician with cancer.
      ). In light of these calls to action, there is a need to translate exercise programming beyond controlled settings and into the community to truly improve cancer survivors’ health and well-being.
      • Phillips SM
      • Alfano CM
      • Perna FM
      • Glasgow RE
      Accelerating translation of physical activity and cancer survivorship research into practice: recommendations for a more integrated and collaborative approach.
      ,
      • Mina DS
      • Sabiston CM
      • Au D
      • et al.
      Connecting people with cancer to physical activity and exercise programs: a pathway to create accessibility and engagement.
      Many barriers exist to exercise program implementation in community settings.
      • Mina DS
      • Sabiston CM
      • Au D
      • et al.
      Connecting people with cancer to physical activity and exercise programs: a pathway to create accessibility and engagement.
      The purpose of an efficacy study is to determine whether the specified intervention (ie, exercise) has a statistically significant effect on a specified outcome; however, these studies often provide little information on optimal design features of such interventions when applied in real-world settings. Implementing a new program is resource intensive, and it may be useful to learn from programs that have been previously implemented. To date, several examples of community-based programs for cancer survivors have been reported in the literature; however, a synthesis of factors influencing implementation has yet to be conducted. As the field aims to move research into practice, there is an opportunity to learn from practice-based evidence from real-world programs.
      • Green LW
      Making research relevant: if it is an evidence-based practice, where's the practice-based evidence?.
      ,
      • Brownson RC
      • Fielding JE
      • Green LW
      Building capacity for evidence-based public health: reconciling the pulls of practice and the push of research.
      Within the field of implementation science (or knowledge translation science) a number of theories, models, and frameworks exist to inform determinants of implementation and the process of implementation and to evaluate the effectiveness of implementation.
      • Nilsen P
      Making sense of implementation theories, models and frameworks.
      The Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR) is an example of a widely used determinants framework by which implementation can be understood.
      • Damschroder LJ
      • Aron DC
      • Keith RE
      • Kirsh SR
      • Alexander JA
      • Lowery JC
      Fostering implementation of health services research findings into practice: a consolidated framework for advancing implementation science.
      The CFIR is a comprehensive, multilevel taxonomy of evidence-based constructs that influence implementation. The CFIR organizes 39 constructs into 5 major domains: (1) intervention characteristics; (2) characteristics of individuals involved; (3) outer setting (ie, external factors that may influence intervention implementation); (4) inner setting (ie, characteristics of the organization implementing the intervention); and (5) the process of implementation. The CFIR has been used across a wide range of settings and with various populations (eg, to understand implementation characteristics in a balance training program for people with Parkinson disease,
      • Leavy B
      • Kwak L
      • Hagstromer M
      • Franzen E
      Evaluation and implementation of highly challenging balance training in clinical practice for people with Parkinson's disease: protocol for the HiBalance effectiveness-implementation trial.
      in school-based physical activity programs,
      • Calvert HG
      • Lane HG
      • Bejarano CM
      • et al.
      An evaluation of the coverage of theoretically based implementation factors in disseminated classroom physical activity programs.
      and in a community-based cancer prevention intervention
      • King ES
      • Moore CJ
      • Wilson HK
      • Harden SM
      • Davis M
      • Berg AC
      Mixed methods evaluation of implementation and outcomes in a community-based cancer prevention intervention.
      ); however, a summary of these characteristics related to community-based exercise programs for survivors of cancer has not been conducted. As such, the purpose of this scoping review is to describe the characteristics of exercise interventions conducted outside of a research laboratory or hospital setting (ie, home-based or community-based settings) that have been reported in the literature using the CFIR. These findings may be useful to help both researchers and practitioners identify potential strategies for future implementation of community-based exercise programs for survivors of cancer.

      Methods

      The scoping review is reported according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta Analyses statement extension for scoping reviews.
      • Tricco AC
      • Lillie E
      • Zarin W
      • et al.
      PRISMA Extension for Scoping Reviews (PRISMA-ScR): checklist and explanation.
      An original protocol for a systematic review was registered in the PROSPERO database on September 2017 (CRD42017074002). Owing to the limited and heterogeneous literature found in our search, after registration, a decision was made to follow a protocol for a scoping review,
      • O'Brien KK
      • Colquhoun H
      • Levac D
      • et al.
      Advancing scoping study methodology: a web-based survey and consultation of perceptions on terminology, definition and methodological steps.
      because this was better suited to report on implementation characteristics across a wide range of study designs. As a result, a risk of bias assessment of included studies was not performed. Although systematic reviews are a widely used and accepted methodology to answer clinically relevant questions related to feasibility, efficacy, or effectiveness, the scoping review is a relatively new methodology.
      • Pham MT
      • Rajic A
      • Greig JD
      • Sargeant JM
      • Papadopoulos A
      • McEwen SA
      A scoping review of scoping reviews: advancing the approach and enhancing the consistency.
      A scoping review is indicated when there is a need to identify and map the available evidence, examine how research has been conducted, and identify important knowledge gaps in a field.
      • Munn Z
      • Peters MDJ
      • Stern C
      • Tufanaru C
      • McArthur A
      • Aromataris E
      Systematic review or scoping review? Guidance for authors when choosing between a systematic or scoping review approach.
      Although scoping reviews are often precursors to future systematic reviews, they usually do not answer questions related to what the best practice is. A secondary objective of our registered review was to explore whether specific implementation characteristics were associated with program effectiveness. Because of the specific study design used and nature of the data reported within the included studies, we were unable to identify programs that we could confidently deem effective. Thus, we were unable to address this secondary objective in the current review. All other specifications from our registration were followed.

      Search strategy and selection

      Per our published protocol, 6 electronic databases (Medline, Pubmed, Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature, PsycINFO, SPORTdiscus, Embase) were systematically searched using a search strategy developed with input from the coauthors and in consultation with a librarian with expertise in knowledge syntheses. The search combined terms relevant to exercise or physical activity, cancer, and home- or community-based programs (appendix 1). Search results were limited to studies written in the English language in peer-reviewed journals, published between January 1980 and January 2021. Reference lists of key systematic reviews and/or meta-analyses identified through the search were hand-searched to identify additional publications.
      To be eligible for inclusion, studies had to target male or female survivors of cancer over the age of 18 years and report on a community-based exercise program that aimed to help cancer survivors meet published physical activity guidelines (eg, aerobic or resistance training, walking in an individual or group-based setting).
      • Schmitz KH
      • Courneya KS
      • Matthews C
      • et al.
      American College of Sports Medicine roundtable on exercise guidelines for cancer survivors.
      ,
      • Segal R
      • Zwaal C
      • Green E
      • et al.
      Exercise for people with cancer: a clinical practice guideline.
      Studies that focused on alternative or low-intensity activity such as yoga or Tai Chi, as well as therapeutic (eg, shoulder rehabilitation for lymphedema) interventions were excluded. We defined a community-based program as one that (1) was conducted outside of an exclusively research setting (ie, not conducted solely for research purposes) and (2) included supervised or unsupervised exercise that could be completed by participants on their own or in a group, in any setting outside of an inpatient or outpatient hospital setting, including at home. No restrictions were applied based on study design or program duration.
      Bibliographic records from each database were uploaded into the Covidence systematic review management softwarea and duplicates were removed. Two reviewers (S.N.S., J.S.T., A.F., and K.K.) independently screened the title and abstract of each reference to determine potential eligibility. The full text of studies passing the initial screening level were examined by 2 independent reviewers to verify eligibility (S.N.S., J.S.T., A.F., and K.K.). Discrepancies were resolved through discussion and consensus. Where conference abstracts were identified without full text articles, authors were contacted for additional publications. Conference abstracts alone were excluded because the lack of information that could be extracted.

      Data extraction

      Data were extracted using Covidence. The data extraction form was piloted independently by 2 reviewers (S.N.S., J.S.T., and A.F.) and revised prior to full extraction of included studies. All data were extracted independently by 2 reviewers (S.N.S., J.S.T., and A.F.). Any notable discrepancies were resolved through discussion and consensus.
      The following data were extracted from each eligible study using the Oxford Implementation Index, a previously developed tool designed to guide the extraction of implementation data from primary studies.
      • Montgomery P
      • Underhill K
      • Gardner F
      • Operario D
      • Mayo-Wilson E
      The Oxford Implementation Index: a new tool for incorporating implementation data into systematic reviews and meta-analyses.
      Specifically, data related to (1) study identification (ie, country, setting, author names, institution); (2) study design; (3) intervention characteristics (ie, exercise type, frequency, program duration, delivery format, equipment/space requirements, fee structure, cost for participants); (4) characteristics of the participant population (ie, sociodemographic information, cancer type, cancer stage, treatment status), program staff characteristics (ie, training), and program delivery; and (5) contextual factors (ie, geographic location, organizational characteristics, contact with health care professionals).

      Data coding and analysis

      After data extraction, the identified data were coded in duplicate for analysis using the CFIR to examine program implementation characteristics at multiple levels. Some extracted data from the Oxford Implementation Index were relevant under multiple CFIR domains. Discrepancies were resolved through group discussion. Given the limited data on implementation characteristics presented in included studies, we were unable to sufficiently code data across the 39 CFIR constructs; thus, a narrative synthesis of the findings is presented across the 5 broad CFIR domains.

      Results

      The database search retrieved 5721 unique citations, of which 813 underwent full-text review (fig 1). A total of 4908 records were excluded because of clear ineligibility based on the title and/or abstract. Hand searching and contacting authors yielded 1 additional publication (published after the date of our last search) from an already included program. In total, 58 full-text publications describing 34 unique programs were included.
      • Abbott L
      • Hooke MC
      Energy through motion: an activity intervention for cancer-related fatigue in an ambulatory infusion center.
      • Barber FD
      Effects of social support on physical activity, self-efficacy, and quality of life in adult cancer survivors and their caregivers.
      • Beidas RS
      • Paciotti B
      • Barg F
      • et al.
      A hybrid effectiveness-implementation trial of an evidence-based exercise intervention for breast cancer survivors.
      • Below N
      • Fisher A
      • Epstone S
      • Reynolds J
      • Pugh G
      Young adult cancer survivors’ experience of taking part in a 12-week exercise referral programme: a qualitative study of the Trekstock RENEW initiative.
      • Bjerre ED
      • Brasso K
      • Jorgensen AB
      • et al.
      Football compared with usual care in men with prostate cancer (FC Prostate Community Trial): a pragmatic multicentre randomized controlled trial.
      • Brunet J
      • Howell D
      • Au D
      • et al.
      Predictors of cancer survivors’ response to a community-based exercise program.
      • Brunet J
      • Saunders S
      • Gifford W
      • Thomas R
      • Hamilton R
      An exploratory qualitative study of the meaning and value of a running/walking program for women after a diagnosis of breast cancer.
      • Brunet J
      • St-Aubin A
      Fostering positive experiences of group-based exercise classes after breast cancer: what do women have to say?.
      • Bruun DM
      • Bjerre E
      • Krustrup P
      • et al.
      Community-based recreational football: a novel approach to promote physical activity and quality of life in prostate cancer survivors.
      • Calo WA
      • Doerksen SE
      • Spanos K
      • Pergolotti M
      • Schmitz KH
      Implementing Strength after Breast Cancer (SABC) in outpatient rehabilitation clinics: mapping clinician survey data onto key implementation outcomes.
      • Catt S
      • Sheward J
      • Sheward E
      • Harder H
      Cancer survivors’ experiences of a community-based cancer-specific exercise programme: results of an exploratory survey.
      • Cheifetz O
      • Dorsay JP
      • Hladysh G
      • MacDermid J
      • Serediuk F
      • Woodhouse LJ
      CanWell: meeting the psychosocial and exercise needs of cancer survivors by translating evidence into practice.
      • Cheifetz O
      • Dorsay JP
      • MacDermid JC
      Exercise facilitators and barriers following participation in a community-based exercise and education program for cancer survivors.
      • Christopher KA
      • Morrow LL
      Evaluating a community-based exercise program for women cancer survivors.
      • Conlon BA
      • Kahan M
      • Martinez M
      • et al.
      Development and evaluation of the curriculum for BOLD (Bronx Oncology Living Daily) healthy living: a diabetes prevention and control program for underserved cancer survivors.
      • Cormie P
      • Lamb S
      • Newton RU
      • et al.
      Implementing exercise in cancer care: study protocol to evaluate a community-based exercise program for people with cancer.
      • Dalzell MA
      • Smirnow N
      • Sateren W
      • et al.
      Rehabilitation and exercise oncology program: translating research into a model of care.
      • Drake D
      • Falzer P
      • Xistris D
      • Robinson G
      • Roberge M
      Physical fitness training: outcomes for adult oncology patients.
      • Faro JM
      • Arem H
      • Heston AH
      • et al.
      A longitudinal implementation evaluation of a physical activity program for cancer survivors: LIVESTRONG(R) at the YMCA.
      • Foley MP
      • Barnes VA
      • Hasson SM
      Effects of a community-based multimodal exercise program on physical function and quality of life in cancer survivors: a pilot study.
      • Foley MP
      • Hasson SM
      Effects of a community-based multimodal exercise program on health-related physical fitness and physical function in breast cancer survivors: a pilot study.
      • Foley MP
      • Hasson SM
      • Kendall E
      Effects of a translational community-based multimodal exercise program on quality of life and the influence of start delay on physical function and quality of life in breast cancer survivors: a pilot study.
      • Greenlee HA
      • Crew KD
      • Mata JM
      • et al.
      A pilot randomized controlled trial of a commercial diet and exercise weight loss program in minority breast cancer survivors.
      • Haas BK
      • Kimmel G
      Model for a community-based exercise program for cancer survivors: taking patient care to the next level.
      • Haas BK
      • Kimmel G
      • Hermanns M
      • Deal B
      Community-based FitSTEPS for life exercise program for persons with cancer: 5-year evaluation.
      • Hardcastle SJ
      • Maxwell-Smith C
      • Kamarova S
      • Lamb S
      • Millar L
      • Cohen PA
      Factors influencing non-participation in an exercise program and attitudes towards physical activity amongst cancer survivors.
      • Heston AH
      • Schwartz AL
      • Justice-Gardiner H
      • Hohman KH
      Addressing physical activity needs of survivors by developing a community-based exercise program: LIVESTRONG(R) at the YMCA.
      • Jones LM
      • Reinhoudt LL
      • Hilverda F
      • Rutjes C
      • Hayes SC
      Using the integrative model of behavioral prediction to understand female breast cancer survivors’ barriers and facilitators for adherence to a community-based group-exercise program.
      • Kimmel GT
      • Haas BK
      • Hermanns M
      The role of exercise in cancer treatment: bridging the gap.
      • Kirkham AA
      • Neil-Sztramko SE
      • Morgan J
      • et al.
      Health-related physical fitness assessment in a community-based cancer rehabilitation setting.
      • Kirkham AA
      • Neil-Sztramko SE
      • Morgan J
      • et al.
      Fee-for-service cancer rehabilitation programs improve health-related quality of life.
      • Korstjens I
      • Mesters I
      • Gijsen B
      • van den Borne B
      Cancer patients’ view on rehabilitation and quality of life: a programme audit.
      • Korstjens I
      • Mesters I
      • van der Peet E
      • Gijsen B
      • van den Borne B
      Quality of life of cancer survivors after physical and psychosocial rehabilitation.
      • Leach HJ
      • Danyluk JM
      • Culos-Reed SN
      Design and implementation of a community-based exercise program for breast cancer patients.
      • Leach HJ
      • Danyluk JM
      • Nishimura KC
      • Culos-Reed SN
      Evaluation of a community-based exercise program for breast cancer patients undergoing treatment.
      • Leach HJ
      • Danyluk JM
      • Nishimura KC
      Culos-Reed SN. Benefits of 24 versus 12 weeks of exercise and wellness programming for women undergoing treatment for breast cancer.
      • Lee CE
      • Von Ah D
      • Szuck B
      • Lau YK
      Determinants of physical activity maintenance in breast cancer survivors after a community-based intervention.
      • Lee CE
      • Warden SJ
      • Szuck B
      • Lau YK
      A preliminary study on the efficacy of a community-based physical activity intervention on physical function-related risk factors for falls among breast cancer survivors.
      • Lopez CJ
      • Pritlove C
      • Jones JM
      • et al.
      "This is my home-based exercise”: exploring environmental influences on home-based exercise participation in oncology.
      • MacDonald AM
      • Chafranskaia A
      • Lopez CJ
      • et al.
      CaRE @ Home: pilot study of an online multidimensional cancer rehabilitation and exercise program for cancer survivors.
      • McGrath P
      • Joske D
      • Bouwman M
      Benefits from participation in the chemo club: psychosocial insights on an exercise program for cancer patients.
      • Murray L
      • Roth E
      • Galvin D
      • et al.
      The impact of resistive exercise and psychosocial support on quality of life and fatigue in cancer survivors via utilization of a community-based program: a case series.
      • Musanti R
      • Chao YY
      • Collins K
      Fitness and quality of life outcomes of cancer survivor participants in a community exercise program.
      • Ng AV
      • Cybulski AN
      • Engel AA
      • et al.
      Triathlon training for women breast cancer survivors: feasibility and initial efficacy.
      • Noble M
      • Russell C
      • Kraemer L
      • Sharratt M
      UW WELL-FIT: the impact of supervised exercise programs on physical capacity and quality of life in individuals receiving treatment for cancer.
      • Nock NL
      • Owusu C
      • Flocke S
      • et al.
      A community-based exercise and support group program improves quality of life in African-American breast cancer survivors: a quantitative and qualitative analysis.
      • Nock NL
      • Owusu C
      • Kullman EL
      • et al.
      A community-based exercise and support group program in African-American breast cancer survivors (ABCs).
      • Packel L
      • Claghorn KVB
      • Dekerlegand J
      Cancer-related fatigue and deconditioning: a program evaluation.
      • Perry CK
      • Campbell LP
      • Currier J
      • et al.
      An evidence-based walking program in Oregon communities: Step It Up! Survivors.
      • Pugh G
      • Below N
      • Fisher A
      • Reynolds J
      • Epstone S
      Trekstock RENEW: evaluation of a 12-week exercise referral programme for young adult cancer survivors delivered by a cancer charity.
      • Rajotte EJ
      • Yi JC
      • Baker KS
      • Gregerson L
      • Leiserowitz A
      • Syrjala KL
      Community-based exercise program effectiveness and safety for cancer survivors.
      • Sabiston CM
      • Fong AJ
      • O'Loughlin EK
      • Meterissian S
      A mixed-methods evaluation of a community physical activity program for breast cancer survivors.
      • Santa Mina D
      • Au D
      • Brunet J
      • et al.
      Effects of the community-based Wellspring Cancer Exercise Program on functional and psychosocial outcomes in cancer survivors.
      • Sherman KA
      • Heard G
      • Cavanagh KL
      Psychological effects and mediators of a group multi-component program for breast cancer survivors.
      • Swenson KK
      • Nissen MJ
      • Knippenberg K
      • et al.
      Cancer rehabilitation: outcome evaluation of a strengthening and conditioning program.
      • Uth J
      • Schmidt JF
      • Christensen JF
      • et al.
      Effects of recreational soccer in men with prostate cancer undergoing androgen deprivation therapy: study protocol for the “FC Prostate” randomized controlled trial.
      • Van Gerpen RE
      • Becker BJ
      Development of an evidence-based exercise and education cancer recovery program.
      • Wurz A
      • St-Aubin A
      • Brunet J
      Breast cancer survivors’ barriers and motives for participating in a group-based physical activity program offered in the community.
      Fig 1
      Fig 1Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta Analyses flow diagram of study selection.

      Description of included publications

      The final 58 included publications primarily reported various aspects of community-based exercise programs for survivors of cancer. Over half of publications (53%) reported on changes in physiological or psychosocial outcomes as a result of taking part in the program through single-group pre-post or randomized controlled trial design
      • Barber FD
      Effects of social support on physical activity, self-efficacy, and quality of life in adult cancer survivors and their caregivers.
      ,
      • Cheifetz O
      • Dorsay JP
      • Hladysh G
      • MacDermid J
      • Serediuk F
      • Woodhouse LJ
      CanWell: meeting the psychosocial and exercise needs of cancer survivors by translating evidence into practice.
      • Cheifetz O
      • Dorsay JP
      • MacDermid JC
      Exercise facilitators and barriers following participation in a community-based exercise and education program for cancer survivors.
      • Christopher KA
      • Morrow LL
      Evaluating a community-based exercise program for women cancer survivors.
      • Conlon BA
      • Kahan M
      • Martinez M
      • et al.
      Development and evaluation of the curriculum for BOLD (Bronx Oncology Living Daily) healthy living: a diabetes prevention and control program for underserved cancer survivors.
      ,
      • Drake D
      • Falzer P
      • Xistris D
      • Robinson G
      • Roberge M
      Physical fitness training: outcomes for adult oncology patients.
      ,
      • Foley MP
      • Barnes VA
      • Hasson SM
      Effects of a community-based multimodal exercise program on physical function and quality of life in cancer survivors: a pilot study.
      • Foley MP
      • Hasson SM
      Effects of a community-based multimodal exercise program on health-related physical fitness and physical function in breast cancer survivors: a pilot study.
      • Foley MP
      • Hasson SM
      • Kendall E
      Effects of a translational community-based multimodal exercise program on quality of life and the influence of start delay on physical function and quality of life in breast cancer survivors: a pilot study.
      • Greenlee HA
      • Crew KD
      • Mata JM
      • et al.
      A pilot randomized controlled trial of a commercial diet and exercise weight loss program in minority breast cancer survivors.
      ,
      • Haas BK
      • Kimmel G
      • Hermanns M
      • Deal B
      Community-based FitSTEPS for life exercise program for persons with cancer: 5-year evaluation.
      ,
      • Kirkham AA
      • Neil-Sztramko SE
      • Morgan J
      • et al.
      Health-related physical fitness assessment in a community-based cancer rehabilitation setting.
      ,
      • Kirkham AA
      • Neil-Sztramko SE
      • Morgan J
      • et al.
      Fee-for-service cancer rehabilitation programs improve health-related quality of life.
      ,
      • Korstjens I
      • Mesters I
      • van der Peet E
      • Gijsen B
      • van den Borne B
      Quality of life of cancer survivors after physical and psychosocial rehabilitation.
      ,
      • Leach HJ
      • Danyluk JM
      • Nishimura KC
      • Culos-Reed SN
      Evaluation of a community-based exercise program for breast cancer patients undergoing treatment.
      • Leach HJ
      • Danyluk JM
      • Nishimura KC
      Culos-Reed SN. Benefits of 24 versus 12 weeks of exercise and wellness programming for women undergoing treatment for breast cancer.
      • Lee CE
      • Von Ah D
      • Szuck B
      • Lau YK
      Determinants of physical activity maintenance in breast cancer survivors after a community-based intervention.
      • Lee CE
      • Warden SJ
      • Szuck B
      • Lau YK
      A preliminary study on the efficacy of a community-based physical activity intervention on physical function-related risk factors for falls among breast cancer survivors.
      ,
      • Murray L
      • Roth E
      • Galvin D
      • et al.
      The impact of resistive exercise and psychosocial support on quality of life and fatigue in cancer survivors via utilization of a community-based program: a case series.
      • Musanti R
      • Chao YY
      • Collins K
      Fitness and quality of life outcomes of cancer survivor participants in a community exercise program.
      • Ng AV
      • Cybulski AN
      • Engel AA
      • et al.
      Triathlon training for women breast cancer survivors: feasibility and initial efficacy.
      • Noble M
      • Russell C
      • Kraemer L
      • Sharratt M
      UW WELL-FIT: the impact of supervised exercise programs on physical capacity and quality of life in individuals receiving treatment for cancer.
      • Nock NL
      • Owusu C
      • Flocke S
      • et al.
      A community-based exercise and support group program improves quality of life in African-American breast cancer survivors: a quantitative and qualitative analysis.
      • Nock NL
      • Owusu C
      • Kullman EL
      • et al.
      A community-based exercise and support group program in African-American breast cancer survivors (ABCs).
      • Packel L
      • Claghorn KVB
      • Dekerlegand J
      Cancer-related fatigue and deconditioning: a program evaluation.
      ,
      • Pugh G
      • Below N
      • Fisher A
      • Reynolds J
      • Epstone S
      Trekstock RENEW: evaluation of a 12-week exercise referral programme for young adult cancer survivors delivered by a cancer charity.
      • Rajotte EJ
      • Yi JC
      • Baker KS
      • Gregerson L
      • Leiserowitz A
      • Syrjala KL
      Community-based exercise program effectiveness and safety for cancer survivors.
      • Sabiston CM
      • Fong AJ
      • O'Loughlin EK
      • Meterissian S
      A mixed-methods evaluation of a community physical activity program for breast cancer survivors.
      • Santa Mina D
      • Au D
      • Brunet J
      • et al.
      Effects of the community-based Wellspring Cancer Exercise Program on functional and psychosocial outcomes in cancer survivors.
      • Sherman KA
      • Heard G
      • Cavanagh KL
      Psychological effects and mediators of a group multi-component program for breast cancer survivors.
      • Swenson KK
      • Nissen MJ
      • Knippenberg K
      • et al.
      Cancer rehabilitation: outcome evaluation of a strengthening and conditioning program.
      Others (21%) primarily focused on describing program development and implementation.
      • Abbott L
      • Hooke MC
      Energy through motion: an activity intervention for cancer-related fatigue in an ambulatory infusion center.
      ,
      • Bruun DM
      • Bjerre E
      • Krustrup P
      • et al.
      Community-based recreational football: a novel approach to promote physical activity and quality of life in prostate cancer survivors.
      ,
      • Calo WA
      • Doerksen SE
      • Spanos K
      • Pergolotti M
      • Schmitz KH
      Implementing Strength after Breast Cancer (SABC) in outpatient rehabilitation clinics: mapping clinician survey data onto key implementation outcomes.
      ,
      • Conlon BA
      • Kahan M
      • Martinez M
      • et al.
      Development and evaluation of the curriculum for BOLD (Bronx Oncology Living Daily) healthy living: a diabetes prevention and control program for underserved cancer survivors.
      ,
      • Dalzell MA
      • Smirnow N
      • Sateren W
      • et al.
      Rehabilitation and exercise oncology program: translating research into a model of care.
      ,
      • Haas BK
      • Kimmel G
      Model for a community-based exercise program for cancer survivors: taking patient care to the next level.
      ,
      • Heston AH
      • Schwartz AL
      • Justice-Gardiner H
      • Hohman KH
      Addressing physical activity needs of survivors by developing a community-based exercise program: LIVESTRONG(R) at the YMCA.
      ,
      • Kimmel GT
      • Haas BK
      • Hermanns M
      The role of exercise in cancer treatment: bridging the gap.
      ,
      • Leach HJ
      • Danyluk JM
      • Culos-Reed SN
      Design and implementation of a community-based exercise program for breast cancer patients.
      ,
      • MacDonald AM
      • Chafranskaia A
      • Lopez CJ
      • et al.
      CaRE @ Home: pilot study of an online multidimensional cancer rehabilitation and exercise program for cancer survivors.
      ,
      • Perry CK
      • Campbell LP
      • Currier J
      • et al.
      An evidence-based walking program in Oregon communities: Step It Up! Survivors.
      ,
      • Van Gerpen RE
      • Becker BJ
      Development of an evidence-based exercise and education cancer recovery program.
      Thirteen publications (22%) reported participants’ experiences in community-based exercise programs using a qualitative
      • Below N
      • Fisher A
      • Epstone S
      • Reynolds J
      • Pugh G
      Young adult cancer survivors’ experience of taking part in a 12-week exercise referral programme: a qualitative study of the Trekstock RENEW initiative.
      ,
      • Brunet J
      • Saunders S
      • Gifford W
      • Thomas R
      • Hamilton R
      An exploratory qualitative study of the meaning and value of a running/walking program for women after a diagnosis of breast cancer.
      ,
      • Brunet J
      • St-Aubin A
      Fostering positive experiences of group-based exercise classes after breast cancer: what do women have to say?.
      ,
      • Hardcastle SJ
      • Maxwell-Smith C
      • Kamarova S
      • Lamb S
      • Millar L
      • Cohen PA
      Factors influencing non-participation in an exercise program and attitudes towards physical activity amongst cancer survivors.
      ,
      • Jones LM
      • Reinhoudt LL
      • Hilverda F
      • Rutjes C
      • Hayes SC
      Using the integrative model of behavioral prediction to understand female breast cancer survivors’ barriers and facilitators for adherence to a community-based group-exercise program.
      ,
      • Korstjens I
      • Mesters I
      • Gijsen B
      • van den Borne B
      Cancer patients’ view on rehabilitation and quality of life: a programme audit.
      ,
      • Lopez CJ
      • Pritlove C
      • Jones JM
      • et al.
      "This is my home-based exercise”: exploring environmental influences on home-based exercise participation in oncology.
      ,
      • McGrath P
      • Joske D
      • Bouwman M
      Benefits from participation in the chemo club: psychosocial insights on an exercise program for cancer patients.
      ,
      • Nock NL
      • Owusu C
      • Flocke S
      • et al.
      A community-based exercise and support group program improves quality of life in African-American breast cancer survivors: a quantitative and qualitative analysis.
      ,
      • Wurz A
      • St-Aubin A
      • Brunet J
      Breast cancer survivors’ barriers and motives for participating in a group-based physical activity program offered in the community.
      or cross-sectional survey design
      • Brunet J
      • Howell D
      • Au D
      • et al.
      Predictors of cancer survivors’ response to a community-based exercise program.
      ,
      • Catt S
      • Sheward J
      • Sheward E
      • Harder H
      Cancer survivors’ experiences of a community-based cancer-specific exercise programme: results of an exploratory survey.
      ,
      • Sabiston CM
      • Fong AJ
      • O'Loughlin EK
      • Meterissian S
      A mixed-methods evaluation of a community physical activity program for breast cancer survivors.
      ; 2 were study protocol papers (3%)
      • Cormie P
      • Lamb S
      • Newton RU
      • et al.
      Implementing exercise in cancer care: study protocol to evaluate a community-based exercise program for people with cancer.
      ,
      • Uth J
      • Schmidt JF
      • Christensen JF
      • et al.
      Effects of recreational soccer in men with prostate cancer undergoing androgen deprivation therapy: study protocol for the “FC Prostate” randomized controlled trial.
      and 2 described hybrid implementation-effectiveness trials (3%).
      • Beidas RS
      • Paciotti B
      • Barg F
      • et al.
      A hybrid effectiveness-implementation trial of an evidence-based exercise intervention for breast cancer survivors.
      ,
      • Bjerre ED
      • Brasso K
      • Jorgensen AB
      • et al.
      Football compared with usual care in men with prostate cancer (FC Prostate Community Trial): a pragmatic multicentre randomized controlled trial.

      Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research domains

      Here we provide a narrative summary of findings according to each of the 5 CFIR domains, with additional details provided in tables 1-5 and supplemental tables S1 and S2 (available online only at http://www.archives-pmr.org/).
      Table 1Intervention characteristics
      Program NameExercise RxProgram LocationDelivery FormatAttendance/AdherenceParticipation SupportsCointerventionsParticipant CostEquipment, Space Requirements
      ActivOnco
      • Dalzell MA
      • Smirnow N
      • Sateren W
      • et al.
      Rehabilitation and exercise oncology program: translating research into a model of care.
      3 mo+

      AER, RES (ACSM guidelines)
      Wellness center affiliated with hospital or homeGroup-based+home exercise71% compliance (subset of participants)Ongoing reassessmentPsychosocial support

      Education

      Service referral
      NRNR
      Beauty
      • Leach HJ
      • Danyluk JM
      • Culos-Reed SN
      Design and implementation of a community-based exercise program for breast cancer patients.
      • Leach HJ
      • Danyluk JM
      • Nishimura KC
      • Culos-Reed SN
      Evaluation of a community-based exercise program for breast cancer patients undergoing treatment.
      • Leach HJ
      • Danyluk JM
      • Nishimura KC
      Culos-Reed SN. Benefits of 24 versus 12 weeks of exercise and wellness programming for women undergoing treatment for breast cancer.
      12+12 wk

      2 × /wk 20- to 60-min AER (40-60% HRM), 1 × /wk RES 1-3 sets, 8-12 reps, 5-14 exercises
      Thrive Centre, free exercise facility for cancer survivorsGroup-based or home exercise7.5±6.5 sessions (out of 24)

      24.4% attended ≥12 sessions
      Exercise tracking

      Choice of delivery format
      EducationFreeResource package for home exercise
      Bronx Oncology Daily Living Healthy Living Program
      • Conlon BA
      • Kahan M
      • Martinez M
      • et al.
      Development and evaluation of the curriculum for BOLD (Bronx Oncology Living Daily) healthy living: a diabetes prevention and control program for underserved cancer survivors.
      4 or 12 wk (12 sessions total)

      1-3 × /wk, 60 min
      Medical centers, churches, American Cancer Society officeGroup-based (5-12)62.5% (IQR, 40.0-80%)

      Greater attendance to 12- vs 4-wk program
      Translator, culturally tailored

      Self-management

      Family/caregivers

      Transportation

      Walking groups/local resources
      Diet/nutrition counselingFreeToolkit handouts (available online)
      Cancer rehabilitation

      strengthening and conditioning program
      • Swenson KK
      • Nissen MJ
      • Knippenberg K
      • et al.
      Cancer rehabilitation: outcome evaluation of a strengthening and conditioning program.
      8 wk+6 mo

      1- to 1.5-h AER+RES (light-mod)
      Fitness center adjacent to hospitalFirst 2 sessions 1:1 with PT then individual or group-basedNRMaintenance phase

      Independent exercise in facility free of charge
      NRFreeTreadmills; elliptical, upright, and recumbent bikes; functional cable machine; track
      CanWell
      • Cheifetz O
      • Dorsay JP
      • Hladysh G
      • MacDermid J
      • Serediuk F
      • Woodhouse LJ
      CanWell: meeting the psychosocial and exercise needs of cancer survivors by translating evidence into practice.
      ,
      • Cheifetz O
      • Dorsay JP
      • MacDermid JC
      Exercise facilitators and barriers following participation in a community-based exercise and education program for cancer survivors.
      12 wk

      AER (50%-80% HRm)

      RES (2-3 s, 8-12 reps)
      YMCAIndividualized

      Supervised
      74% completed 12 wk

      85.4% continued
      NREducationYMCA membership
      CaRE @ Home
      • Lopez CJ
      • Pritlove C
      • Jones JM
      • et al.
      "This is my home-based exercise”: exploring environmental influences on home-based exercise participation in oncology.
      ,
      • MacDonald AM
      • Chafranskaia A
      • Lopez CJ
      • et al.
      CaRE @ Home: pilot study of an online multidimensional cancer rehabilitation and exercise program for cancer survivors.
      8 wk

      AER 150 min/week moderate, RES 2-3 × /wk RES
      HomeIndividualized, onlineNRHealth coaching, Physitrack access, FitbitSelf-management e-learning modulesFreePhysitrack subscription, Fitbits
      Chemo Club
      • McGrath P
      • Joske D
      • Bouwman M
      Benefits from participation in the chemo club: psychosocial insights on an exercise program for cancer patients.
      2 × /wk, 1-h walking, exercises using gym equipmentLocal fitness centerIndividualized, group-basedNRTeam leader actively engages with members (local champion)NRFreeIndoor oval for walking, gym equipment
      CU Fitter
      • Catt S
      • Sheward J
      • Sheward E
      • Harder H
      Cancer survivors’ experiences of a community-based cancer-specific exercise programme: results of an exploratory survey.
      Low-impact AER, RESExercise facility

      Pop-up gym

      Support groups
      1:1 or group-based

      Specific classes by diagnosis/treatment
      1-2 × /wk: 82%

      72% reported other PA
      Initial assessment tailoring

      Regular review
      Support groupNRNR
      Curves
      • Greenlee HA
      • Crew KD
      • Mata JM
      • et al.
      A pilot randomized controlled trial of a commercial diet and exercise weight loss program in minority breast cancer survivors.
      ,
      • Sabiston CM
      • Fong AJ
      • O'Loughlin EK
      • Meterissian S
      A mixed-methods evaluation of a community physical activity program for breast cancer survivors.
      6 mo

      3 × /wk AER+RES circuit
      Curves gymsGroup-based0.6-1.1±0.8 × /wk1:1 initial consultDietary counselingUS$50/mo (free during study)Pneumatic machines
      12 wk

      3-5 × /wk AER+RES circuit
      67% 2-3 × /wk1-y membershipNRCA$420/y (free for study)NR
      Drake et al
      • Drake D
      • Falzer P
      • Xistris D
      • Robinson G
      • Roberge M
      Physical fitness training: outcomes for adult oncology patients.
      8 wk

      3 × /wk, 60-min RES
      Private fitness studioIndividual (center)29% completed

      All completed >20/24
      NR1:1 consult with EPFreeNR
      Energy Through Motion
      • Abbott L
      • Hooke MC
      Energy through motion: an activity intervention for cancer-related fatigue in an ambulatory infusion center.
      3 mo

      2-3 × /wk 150-min MVPA+RES
      Comprehensive cancer center is implementation pointHome exercise

      Text-messaging reminders
      NREducational materials

      Fitness trackers

      Text messages
      NoneNRSecure SMS platform

      Fitness trackers

      RES bands
      ExPINKT
      • Jones LM
      • Reinhoudt LL
      • Hilverda F
      • Rutjes C
      • Hayes SC
      Using the integrative model of behavioral prediction to understand female breast cancer survivors’ barriers and facilitators for adherence to a community-based group-exercise program.
      6- to 12-mo individualized program, group circuit trainingUniversity of Otago1:1 individual followed by groupNRNRNRNZ$50NR
      FC Prostate
      • Bjerre ED
      • Brasso K
      • Jorgensen AB
      • et al.
      Football compared with usual care in men with prostate cancer (FC Prostate Community Trial): a pragmatic multicentre randomized controlled trial.
      ,
      • Bruun DM
      • Bjerre E
      • Krustrup P
      • et al.
      Community-based recreational football: a novel approach to promote physical activity and quality of life in prostate cancer survivors.
      ,
      • Uth J
      • Schmidt JF
      • Christensen JF
      • et al.
      Effects of recreational soccer in men with prostate cancer undergoing androgen deprivation therapy: study protocol for the “FC Prostate” randomized controlled trial.
      6 mo

      2 × /wk 60-min football
      Local football clubsTeam-based59% continuedWeb-based portal to track testing resultsNRFree during study, regular fees afterFootball club

      Football equipment

      Coach manual
      FitSTEPS for Life
      • Barber FD
      Effects of social support on physical activity, self-efficacy, and quality of life in adult cancer survivors and their caregivers.
      ,
      • Haas BK
      • Kimmel G
      Model for a community-based exercise program for cancer survivors: taking patient care to the next level.
      ,
      • Haas BK
      • Kimmel G
      • Hermanns M
      • Deal B
      Community-based FitSTEPS for life exercise program for persons with cancer: 5-year evaluation.
      ,
      • Kimmel GT
      • Haas BK
      • Hermanns M
      The role of exercise in cancer treatment: bridging the gap.
      12 mo

      3 × /wk AER+RES
      Community centerIndividually tailored and supervised (center)50% dropoutPedometer

      Family/support inclusion
      NRFreeBands, stability ball, dumbbells, elliptical
      Get Fit-Stay Fit
      • Christopher KA
      • Morrow LL
      Evaluating a community-based exercise program for women cancer survivors.
      12 wk

      2 × /wk low-impact AER, toning
      NRGroup-based10.5 wk (5-12)

      12.5/24 sessions (5-24)
      NRRelaxation techniquesNRNR
      Kirkham et al
      • Kirkham AA
      • Neil-Sztramko SE
      • Morgan J
      • et al.
      Health-related physical fitness assessment in a community-based cancer rehabilitation setting.
      ,
      • Kirkham AA
      • Neil-Sztramko SE
      • Morgan J
      • et al.
      Fee-for-service cancer rehabilitation programs improve health-related quality of life.
      3-6 mo+

      2 × /wk 20- to 30-min AER (50%-80% HRR), 15- to 20-min RES, 5- to 10-min flex/core
      Community-based fitness studioIndividual (center) and group-based0.9±0.7 × /wk (0–2.4)

      75% follow-up
      NRNRCA$85-100 assessment, CA$70-75/1:1 session; CA$15-25/group session (some insurance)Clinic space
      Korstjens et al
      • Korstjens I
      • Mesters I
      • Gijsen B
      • van den Borne B
      Cancer patients’ view on rehabilitation and quality of life: a programme audit.
      ,
      • Korstjens I
      • Mesters I
      • van der Peet E
      • Gijsen B
      • van den Borne B
      Quality of life of cancer survivors after physical and psychosocial rehabilitation.
      12 wk

      2 × /wk 1-h AER+RES, group sports/game, 30-min aquatic
      Rehabilitation center, NetherlandsGroup-basedNRSocial support (refreshment period)Psychoeducation with partners and family membersNRCycle ergometer, resistance machines, pool
      Lee et al
      • Lee CE
      • Von Ah D
      • Szuck B
      • Lau YK
      Determinants of physical activity maintenance in breast cancer survivors after a community-based intervention.
      ,
      • Lee CE
      • Warden SJ
      • Szuck B
      • Lau YK
      A preliminary study on the efficacy of a community-based physical activity intervention on physical function-related risk factors for falls among breast cancer survivors.
      6 wk

      Group: 1 × /wk, 2.5-h class AER+RES; home: 150-min/wk walking; 2-3 × /wk 1-3 s RES
      Breast clinicGroup-based+home exercise5.1±0.9 of 6 sessionsGroup sessions provide instruction for home exerciseSelf-management educationNRWeights or Thera bands
      LifeSpring
      • Van Gerpen RE
      • Becker BJ
      Development of an evidence-based exercise and education cancer recovery program.
      12 wk

      2 × /wk 20- to 30-min AER intervals, 20- to 30-min group (RPE 11-13)
      Community medical centerGroup-based80% completed programNREducationFreeStationary bike, treadmill, track, recumbent stepper, upper-body ergometer, warm water pool
      Life Now Exercise Program
      • Cormie P
      • Lamb S
      • Newton RU
      • et al.
      Implementing exercise in cancer care: study protocol to evaluate a community-based exercise program for people with cancer.
      ,
      • Hardcastle SJ
      • Maxwell-Smith C
      • Kamarova S
      • Lamb S
      • Millar L
      • Cohen PA
      Factors influencing non-participation in an exercise program and attitudes towards physical activity amongst cancer survivors.
      3 mo

      2 × /wk 60-min AER (60%-85% HRm), RES (60%-85% 1-RM)
      Community exercise clinicsGroup-based68% completed program

      19±4 of 24 sessions
      Caregivers included

      User-pay model begins after 3-mo program
      Initial and follow-up 1:1 consult with EPFreeNR
      LiveStrong YMCA
      • Faro JM
      • Arem H
      • Heston AH
      • et al.
      A longitudinal implementation evaluation of a physical activity program for cancer survivors: LIVESTRONG(R) at the YMCA.
      • Foley MP
      • Barnes VA
      • Hasson SM
      Effects of a community-based multimodal exercise program on physical function and quality of life in cancer survivors: a pilot study.
      • Foley MP
      • Hasson SM
      Effects of a community-based multimodal exercise program on health-related physical fitness and physical function in breast cancer survivors: a pilot study.
      • Foley MP
      • Hasson SM
      • Kendall E
      Effects of a translational community-based multimodal exercise program on quality of life and the influence of start delay on physical function and quality of life in breast cancer survivors: a pilot study.
      ,
      • Heston AH
      • Schwartz AL
      • Justice-Gardiner H
      • Hohman KH
      Addressing physical activity needs of survivors by developing a community-based exercise program: LIVESTRONG(R) at the YMCA.
      ,
      • Musanti R
      • Chao YY
      • Collins K
      Fitness and quality of life outcomes of cancer survivor participants in a community exercise program.
      ,
      • Rajotte EJ
      • Yi JC
      • Baker KS
      • Gregerson L
      • Leiserowitz A
      • Syrjala KL
      Community-based exercise program effectiveness and safety for cancer survivors.
      12 wk

      2 × /wk 30-min AER (70-85% HRm/3-5 RPE), 30-min RES (1-2 s, 8-12 reps, 60%-70% 1-RM)
      YMCAGroup-based81%-84% attendance

      71%-78% retention
      NRDeep diaphragmatic breathingFreeYMCA gym equipment
      YMCANRPeer-to-peer supportNR
      YMCA88% attended >50%Family members receive membershipSocial support

      Education
      YMCA, New York, PhiladelphiaNRNRNR
      YMCANRNRNR
      Moving Forward
      • Murray L
      • Roth E
      • Galvin D
      • et al.
      The impact of resistive exercise and psychosocial support on quality of life and fatigue in cancer survivors via utilization of a community-based program: a case series.
      12 wk

      2 × /wk, 1 h RES
      Breast cancer support centerNR20 (14-24) of 24 sessions 82% completedNRGroup psychosocial support sessionNRNR
      Ng et al
      • Ng AV
      • Cybulski AN
      • Engel AA
      • et al.
      Triathlon training for women breast cancer survivors: feasibility and initial efficacy.
      14 wk

      2 × /wk 45- to 60-min triathlon training, AER, core+RES

      3 × /wk home exercise
      NRGroup training, individualized92% completed raceTeam-based social support; Past participants join

      Equipment loan/donations
      NRNRBicycles

      Postmastectomy swimwear
      Ottawa Regional Cancer Foundation
      • Brunet J
      • St-Aubin A
      Fostering positive experiences of group-based exercise classes after breast cancer: what do women have to say?.
      8 wk

      2 × /wk 60-min AER+RES
      Community siteGroup-based83.1%Individual tailoringNR$0NR
      Packel et al
      • Packel L
      • Claghorn KVB
      • Dekerlegand J
      Cancer-related fatigue and deconditioning: a program evaluation.
      3-5 × /wk mod AER

      2-3 × /wk mod RES
      Outpatient fitness centersSupervisedNRNRNutritional counselingNRNR
      RENEW
      • Below N
      • Fisher A
      • Epstone S
      • Reynolds J
      • Pugh G
      Young adult cancer survivors’ experience of taking part in a 12-week exercise referral programme: a qualitative study of the Trekstock RENEW initiative.
      ,
      • Pugh G
      • Below N
      • Fisher A
      • Reynolds J
      • Epstone S
      Trekstock RENEW: evaluation of a 12-week exercise referral programme for young adult cancer survivors delivered by a cancer charity.
      4 60-min meetings to develop individualized program, AER+RESYMCAOne-on-one77% attended 1 session, 61% completed the 12-wk programGym membership, online supportsNRFreeYMCA gym equipment
      Running Room
      • Brunet J
      • Saunders S
      • Gifford W
      • Thomas R
      • Hamilton R
      An exploratory qualitative study of the meaning and value of a running/walking program for women after a diagnosis of breast cancer.
      12 wk

      3 × /wk 20 min to 5K run/walk
      Urban for-profit running storeGroup-basedNRGroup comraderyEducationNRNR
      Step It Up! Survivors
      • Perry CK
      • Campbell LP
      • Currier J
      • et al.
      An evidence-based walking program in Oregon communities: Step It Up! Survivors.
      3 mo

      1-2 × /wk walking group
      8 community organizationsGroup-based (except 1)Median 12 attendees/group (range, 6-114)

      Mean weekly attendance 13.7
      NRNRNRWalking routes
      Strength After Breast Cancer
      • Beidas RS
      • Paciotti B
      • Barg F
      • et al.
      A hybrid effectiveness-implementation trial of an evidence-based exercise intervention for breast cancer survivors.
      ,
      • Calo WA
      • Doerksen SE
      • Spanos K
      • Pergolotti M
      • Schmitz KH
      Implementing Strength after Breast Cancer (SABC) in outpatient rehabilitation clinics: mapping clinician survey data onto key implementation outcomes.
      12 mo

      2 × /wk RES
      PT clinic (group) +home exercise4 supervised group-based sessions+home exercise50.7±36.1 sessions

      48.8%±34.7%
      PT follow-up callsLymphedema educationUS$229/assessment+$US37.50/session

      (US$0-80 copays)
      Adjustable dumbbells

      Compression sleeve
      The Gathering Place
      • Nock NL
      • Owusu C
      • Flocke S
      • et al.
      A community-based exercise and support group program improves quality of life in African-American breast cancer survivors: a quantitative and qualitative analysis.
      ,
      • Nock NL
      • Owusu C
      • Kullman EL
      • et al.
      A community-based exercise and support group program in African-American breast cancer survivors (ABCs).
      20 wk

      5 × /wk 30-min walk

      2 × /wk 2 s, 8-12 reps (50-80% 1-RM) RES
      Community locationGroup-basedTransportation providedLymphatic decongestion =

      Compression sleeve

      Support group
      FreeNR
      UW WellFit
      • Noble M
      • Russell C
      • Kraemer L
      • Sharratt M
      UW WELL-FIT: the impact of supervised exercise programs on physical capacity and quality of life in individuals receiving treatment for cancer.
      12 wk

      2 × /wk 60-min mod AER, RES, stretching
      University of Waterloo community gymIndividualized, group-based30.7% withdrewWide hours of operationNRNRGym equipment, heart rate monitors
      Wellspring
      • Brunet J
      • Howell D
      • Au D
      • et al.
      Predictors of cancer survivors’ response to a community-based exercise program.
      ,
      • Santa Mina D
      • Au D
      • Brunet J
      • et al.
      Effects of the community-based Wellspring Cancer Exercise Program on functional and psychosocial outcomes in cancer survivors.
      10+20 wk

      Phase 1: 2 × /wk

      Phase 2: 1 × /wk

      60 min, AER interval (50-80% HRR, 3-5 min 4-6 ×)+RES
      Wellspring community-based centersGroup-basedPhase 1: 71%, Phase 2: 49%Phased approach. Discharge package at end of 30 wkManual therapy

      Lymphatic massage

      Kinesio taping

      Rehabilitation Education
      FreeNR
      Wurz et al
      • Wurz A
      • St-Aubin A
      • Brunet J
      Breast cancer survivors’ barriers and motives for participating in a group-based physical activity program offered in the community.
      8 wk

      2 × /wk classes
      Maplesoft Centre for Cancer Survivorship CareGroup-based60%-100%NRNRFreeNR
      YWCA Encore
      • Sherman KA
      • Heard G
      • Cavanagh KL
      Psychological effects and mediators of a group multi-component program for breast cancer survivors.
      8 wk

      1 × /wk 20-min low-intensity mobility+30-min RES
      YWCA community centerGroup-based+home exercise encouragedNRHome exercise tracking

      Coordinator check-in
      Education

      Hydrotherapy
      NRHeated swimming pool, separate rooms for exercise and education
      Abbreviations: ACSM, American College of Sports Medicine; AER, aerobic; EP, exercise physiologist; HRM, heart rate max; HRR, heart rate reserve; IQR, interquartile range; MVPA, moderate-vigorous physical activity; NR, not reported; PA, physical activity; PT, physical therapist; RES, resistance; 1-RM, 1-repetition maximum; RPE, rating of perceived exertion; Rx, prescription; SMS, short message service.

      Intervention characteristics

      Programs ranged from 4 weeks
      • Conlon BA
      • Kahan M
      • Martinez M
      • et al.
      Development and evaluation of the curriculum for BOLD (Bronx Oncology Living Daily) healthy living: a diabetes prevention and control program for underserved cancer survivors.
      to 1 year
      • Beidas RS
      • Paciotti B
      • Barg F
      • et al.
      A hybrid effectiveness-implementation trial of an evidence-based exercise intervention for breast cancer survivors.
      in duration. Five programs did not describe specific program lengths.
      • Catt S
      • Sheward J
      • Sheward E
      • Harder H
      Cancer survivors’ experiences of a community-based cancer-specific exercise programme: results of an exploratory survey.
      ,
      • Dalzell MA
      • Smirnow N
      • Sateren W
      • et al.
      Rehabilitation and exercise oncology program: translating research into a model of care.
      ,
      • Kirkham AA
      • Neil-Sztramko SE
      • Morgan J
      • et al.
      Health-related physical fitness assessment in a community-based cancer rehabilitation setting.
      ,
      • Kirkham AA
      • Neil-Sztramko SE
      • Morgan J
      • et al.
      Fee-for-service cancer rehabilitation programs improve health-related quality of life.
      ,
      • McGrath P
      • Joske D
      • Bouwman M
      Benefits from participation in the chemo club: psychosocial insights on an exercise program for cancer patients.
      ,
      • Packel L
      • Claghorn KVB
      • Dekerlegand J
      Cancer-related fatigue and deconditioning: a program evaluation.
      Most programs included a combination of aerobic and resistance exercise (62%),
      • Abbott L
      • Hooke MC
      Energy through motion: an activity intervention for cancer-related fatigue in an ambulatory infusion center.
      ,
      • Barber FD
      Effects of social support on physical activity, self-efficacy, and quality of life in adult cancer survivors and their caregivers.
      ,
      • Below N
      • Fisher A
      • Epstone S
      • Reynolds J
      • Pugh G
      Young adult cancer survivors’ experience of taking part in a 12-week exercise referral programme: a qualitative study of the Trekstock RENEW initiative.
      ,
      • Brunet J
      • St-Aubin A
      Fostering positive experiences of group-based exercise classes after breast cancer: what do women have to say?.
      ,
      • Catt S
      • Sheward J
      • Sheward E
      • Harder H
      Cancer survivors’ experiences of a community-based cancer-specific exercise programme: results of an exploratory survey.
      • Cheifetz O
      • Dorsay JP
      • Hladysh G
      • MacDermid J
      • Serediuk F
      • Woodhouse LJ
      CanWell: meeting the psychosocial and exercise needs of cancer survivors by translating evidence into practice.
      • Cheifetz O
      • Dorsay JP
      • MacDermid JC
      Exercise facilitators and barriers following participation in a community-based exercise and education program for cancer survivors.
      ,
      • Cormie P
      • Lamb S
      • Newton RU
      • et al.
      Implementing exercise in cancer care: study protocol to evaluate a community-based exercise program for people with cancer.
      ,
      • Dalzell MA
      • Smirnow N
      • Sateren W
      • et al.
      Rehabilitation and exercise oncology program: translating research into a model of care.
      ,
      • Foley MP
      • Barnes VA
      • Hasson SM
      Effects of a community-based multimodal exercise program on physical function and quality of life in cancer survivors: a pilot study.
      • Foley MP
      • Hasson SM
      Effects of a community-based multimodal exercise program on health-related physical fitness and physical function in breast cancer survivors: a pilot study.
      • Foley MP
      • Hasson SM
      • Kendall E
      Effects of a translational community-based multimodal exercise program on quality of life and the influence of start delay on physical function and quality of life in breast cancer survivors: a pilot study.
      • Greenlee HA
      • Crew KD
      • Mata JM
      • et al.
      A pilot randomized controlled trial of a commercial diet and exercise weight loss program in minority breast cancer survivors.
      • Haas BK
      • Kimmel G
      Model for a community-based exercise program for cancer survivors: taking patient care to the next level.
      • Haas BK
      • Kimmel G
      • Hermanns M
      • Deal B
      Community-based FitSTEPS for life exercise program for persons with cancer: 5-year evaluation.
      ,
      • Heston AH
      • Schwartz AL
      • Justice-Gardiner H
      • Hohman KH
      Addressing physical activity needs of survivors by developing a community-based exercise program: LIVESTRONG(R) at the YMCA.
      ,
      • Kimmel GT
      • Haas BK
      • Hermanns M
      The role of exercise in cancer treatment: bridging the gap.
      • Kirkham AA
      • Neil-Sztramko SE
      • Morgan J
      • et al.
      Health-related physical fitness assessment in a community-based cancer rehabilitation setting.
      • Kirkham AA
      • Neil-Sztramko SE
      • Morgan J
      • et al.
      Fee-for-service cancer rehabilitation programs improve health-related quality of life.
      • Korstjens I
      • Mesters I
      • Gijsen B
      • van den Borne B
      Cancer patients’ view on rehabilitation and quality of life: a programme audit.
      • Korstjens I
      • Mesters I
      • van der Peet E
      • Gijsen B
      • van den Borne B
      Quality of life of cancer survivors after physical and psychosocial rehabilitation.
      • Leach HJ
      • Danyluk JM
      • Culos-Reed SN
      Design and implementation of a community-based exercise program for breast cancer patients.
      • Leach HJ
      • Danyluk JM
      • Nishimura KC
      • Culos-Reed SN
      Evaluation of a community-based exercise program for breast cancer patients undergoing treatment.
      • Leach HJ
      • Danyluk JM
      • Nishimura KC
      Culos-Reed SN. Benefits of 24 versus 12 weeks of exercise and wellness programming for women undergoing treatment for breast cancer.
      • Lee CE
      • Von Ah D
      • Szuck B
      • Lau YK
      Determinants of physical activity maintenance in breast cancer survivors after a community-based intervention.
      • Lee CE
      • Warden SJ
      • Szuck B
      • Lau YK
      A preliminary study on the efficacy of a community-based physical activity intervention on physical function-related risk factors for falls among breast cancer survivors.
      • Lopez CJ
      • Pritlove C
      • Jones JM
      • et al.
      "This is my home-based exercise”: exploring environmental influences on home-based exercise participation in oncology.
      • MacDonald AM
      • Chafranskaia A
      • Lopez CJ
      • et al.
      CaRE @ Home: pilot study of an online multidimensional cancer rehabilitation and exercise program for cancer survivors.
      ,
      • Ng AV
      • Cybulski AN
      • Engel AA
      • et al.
      Triathlon training for women breast cancer survivors: feasibility and initial efficacy.
      • Noble M
      • Russell C
      • Kraemer L
      • Sharratt M
      UW WELL-FIT: the impact of supervised exercise programs on physical capacity and quality of life in individuals receiving treatment for cancer.
      • Nock NL
      • Owusu C
      • Flocke S
      • et al.
      A community-based exercise and support group program improves quality of life in African-American breast cancer survivors: a quantitative and qualitative analysis.
      • Nock NL
      • Owusu C
      • Kullman EL
      • et al.
      A community-based exercise and support group program in African-American breast cancer survivors (ABCs).
      • Packel L
      • Claghorn KVB
      • Dekerlegand J
      Cancer-related fatigue and deconditioning: a program evaluation.
      ,
      • Pugh G
      • Below N
      • Fisher A
      • Reynolds J
      • Epstone S
      Trekstock RENEW: evaluation of a 12-week exercise referral programme for young adult cancer survivors delivered by a cancer charity.
      ,
      • Rajotte EJ
      • Yi JC
      • Baker KS
      • Gregerson L
      • Leiserowitz A
      • Syrjala KL
      Community-based exercise program effectiveness and safety for cancer survivors.
      ,
      • Santa Mina D
      • Au D
      • Brunet J
      • et al.
      Effects of the community-based Wellspring Cancer Exercise Program on functional and psychosocial outcomes in cancer survivors.
      ,
      • Swenson KK
      • Nissen MJ
      • Knippenberg K
      • et al.
      Cancer rehabilitation: outcome evaluation of a strengthening and conditioning program.
      whereas others described only resistance training
      • Beidas RS
      • Paciotti B
      • Barg F
      • et al.
      A hybrid effectiveness-implementation trial of an evidence-based exercise intervention for breast cancer survivors.
      ,
      • Drake D
      • Falzer P
      • Xistris D
      • Robinson G
      • Roberge M
      Physical fitness training: outcomes for adult oncology patients.
      ,
      • Murray L
      • Roth E
      • Galvin D
      • et al.
      The impact of resistive exercise and psychosocial support on quality of life and fatigue in cancer survivors via utilization of a community-based program: a case series.
      ,
      • Sherman KA
      • Heard G
      • Cavanagh KL
      Psychological effects and mediators of a group multi-component program for breast cancer survivors.
      or aerobic exercise.
      • Brunet J
      • Saunders S
      • Gifford W
      • Thomas R
      • Hamilton R
      An exploratory qualitative study of the meaning and value of a running/walking program for women after a diagnosis of breast cancer.
      ,
      • Christopher KA
      • Morrow LL
      Evaluating a community-based exercise program for women cancer survivors.
      ,
      • Perry CK
      • Campbell LP
      • Currier J
      • et al.
      An evidence-based walking program in Oregon communities: Step It Up! Survivors.
      Several programs included specific sports, such as football,
      • Bjerre ED
      • Brasso K
      • Jorgensen AB
      • et al.
      Football compared with usual care in men with prostate cancer (FC Prostate Community Trial): a pragmatic multicentre randomized controlled trial.
      ,
      • Bruun DM
      • Bjerre E
      • Krustrup P
      • et al.
      Community-based recreational football: a novel approach to promote physical activity and quality of life in prostate cancer survivors.
      ,
      • Uth J
      • Schmidt JF
      • Christensen JF
      • et al.
      Effects of recreational soccer in men with prostate cancer undergoing androgen deprivation therapy: study protocol for the “FC Prostate” randomized controlled trial.
      triathlon,
      • Ng AV
      • Cybulski AN
      • Engel AA
      • et al.
      Triathlon training for women breast cancer survivors: feasibility and initial efficacy.
      and a run/walk program
      • Brunet J
      • Saunders S
      • Gifford W
      • Thomas R
      • Hamilton R
      An exploratory qualitative study of the meaning and value of a running/walking program for women after a diagnosis of breast cancer.
      (see table 1).
      Programs most commonly operated within public exercise facilities (62%), such as YMCAs, community centers, or private fitness studies/centres.
      • Barber FD
      Effects of social support on physical activity, self-efficacy, and quality of life in adult cancer survivors and their caregivers.
      ,
      • Below N
      • Fisher A
      • Epstone S
      • Reynolds J
      • Pugh G
      Young adult cancer survivors’ experience of taking part in a 12-week exercise referral programme: a qualitative study of the Trekstock RENEW initiative.
      ,
      • Bjerre ED
      • Brasso K
      • Jorgensen AB
      • et al.
      Football compared with usual care in men with prostate cancer (FC Prostate Community Trial): a pragmatic multicentre randomized controlled trial.
      ,
      • Brunet J
      • Saunders S
      • Gifford W
      • Thomas R
      • Hamilton R
      An exploratory qualitative study of the meaning and value of a running/walking program for women after a diagnosis of breast cancer.
      • Brunet J
      • St-Aubin A
      Fostering positive experiences of group-based exercise classes after breast cancer: what do women have to say?.
      • Bruun DM
      • Bjerre E
      • Krustrup P
      • et al.
      Community-based recreational football: a novel approach to promote physical activity and quality of life in prostate cancer survivors.
      ,
      • Catt S
      • Sheward J
      • Sheward E
      • Harder H
      Cancer survivors’ experiences of a community-based cancer-specific exercise programme: results of an exploratory survey.
      • Cheifetz O
      • Dorsay JP
      • Hladysh G
      • MacDermid J
      • Serediuk F
      • Woodhouse LJ
      CanWell: meeting the psychosocial and exercise needs of cancer survivors by translating evidence into practice.
      • Cheifetz O
      • Dorsay JP
      • MacDermid JC
      Exercise facilitators and barriers following participation in a community-based exercise and education program for cancer survivors.
      ,
      • Cormie P
      • Lamb S
      • Newton RU
      • et al.
      Implementing exercise in cancer care: study protocol to evaluate a community-based exercise program for people with cancer.
      ,
      • Drake D
      • Falzer P
      • Xistris D
      • Robinson G
      • Roberge M
      Physical fitness training: outcomes for adult oncology patients.
      ,
      • Foley MP
      • Barnes VA
      • Hasson SM
      Effects of a community-based multimodal exercise program on physical function and quality of life in cancer survivors: a pilot study.
      • Foley MP
      • Hasson SM
      Effects of a community-based multimodal exercise program on health-related physical fitness and physical function in breast cancer survivors: a pilot study.
      • Foley MP
      • Hasson SM
      • Kendall E
      Effects of a translational community-based multimodal exercise program on quality of life and the influence of start delay on physical function and quality of life in breast cancer survivors: a pilot study.
      • Greenlee HA
      • Crew KD
      • Mata JM
      • et al.
      A pilot randomized controlled trial of a commercial diet and exercise weight loss program in minority breast cancer survivors.
      • Haas BK
      • Kimmel G
      Model for a community-based exercise program for cancer survivors: taking patient care to the next level.
      • Haas BK
      • Kimmel G
      • Hermanns M
      • Deal B
      Community-based FitSTEPS for life exercise program for persons with cancer: 5-year evaluation.
      ,
      • Heston AH
      • Schwartz AL
      • Justice-Gardiner H
      • Hohman KH
      Addressing physical activity needs of survivors by developing a community-based exercise program: LIVESTRONG(R) at the YMCA.
      • Jones LM
      • Reinhoudt LL
      • Hilverda F
      • Rutjes C
      • Hayes SC
      Using the integrative model of behavioral prediction to understand female breast cancer survivors’ barriers and facilitators for adherence to a community-based group-exercise program.
      • Kimmel GT
      • Haas BK
      • Hermanns M
      The role of exercise in cancer treatment: bridging the gap.
      • Kirkham AA
      • Neil-Sztramko SE
      • Morgan J
      • et al.
      Health-related physical fitness assessment in a community-based cancer rehabilitation setting.
      • Kirkham AA
      • Neil-Sztramko SE
      • Morgan J
      • et al.
      Fee-for-service cancer rehabilitation programs improve health-related quality of life.
      ,
      • Leach HJ
      • Danyluk JM
      • Culos-Reed SN
      Design and implementation of a community-based exercise program for breast cancer patients.
      • Leach HJ
      • Danyluk JM
      • Nishimura KC
      • Culos-Reed SN
      Evaluation of a community-based exercise program for breast cancer patients undergoing treatment.
      • Leach HJ
      • Danyluk JM
      • Nishimura KC
      Culos-Reed SN. Benefits of 24 versus 12 weeks of exercise and wellness programming for women undergoing treatment for breast cancer.
      ,
      • McGrath P
      • Joske D
      • Bouwman M
      Benefits from participation in the chemo club: psychosocial insights on an exercise program for cancer patients.
      ,
      • Musanti R
      • Chao YY
      • Collins K
      Fitness and quality of life outcomes of cancer survivor participants in a community exercise program.
      ,
      • Noble M
      • Russell C
      • Kraemer L
      • Sharratt M
      UW WELL-FIT: the impact of supervised exercise programs on physical capacity and quality of life in individuals receiving treatment for cancer.
      • Nock NL
      • Owusu C
      • Flocke S
      • et al.
      A community-based exercise and support group program improves quality of life in African-American breast cancer survivors: a quantitative and qualitative analysis.
      • Nock NL
      • Owusu C
      • Kullman EL
      • et al.
      A community-based exercise and support group program in African-American breast cancer survivors (ABCs).
      • Packel L
      • Claghorn KVB
      • Dekerlegand J
      Cancer-related fatigue and deconditioning: a program evaluation.
      • Perry CK
      • Campbell LP
      • Currier J
      • et al.
      An evidence-based walking program in Oregon communities: Step It Up! Survivors.
      • Pugh G
      • Below N
      • Fisher A
      • Reynolds J
      • Epstone S
      Trekstock RENEW: evaluation of a 12-week exercise referral programme for young adult cancer survivors delivered by a cancer charity.
      • Rajotte EJ
      • Yi JC
      • Baker KS
      • Gregerson L
      • Leiserowitz A
      • Syrjala KL
      Community-based exercise program effectiveness and safety for cancer survivors.
      ,
      • Santa Mina D
      • Au D
      • Brunet J
      • et al.
      Effects of the community-based Wellspring Cancer Exercise Program on functional and psychosocial outcomes in cancer survivors.
      • Sherman KA
      • Heard G
      • Cavanagh KL
      Psychological effects and mediators of a group multi-component program for breast cancer survivors.
      • Swenson KK
      • Nissen MJ
      • Knippenberg K
      • et al.
      Cancer rehabilitation: outcome evaluation of a strengthening and conditioning program.
      • Uth J
      • Schmidt JF
      • Christensen JF
      • et al.
      Effects of recreational soccer in men with prostate cancer undergoing androgen deprivation therapy: study protocol for the “FC Prostate” randomized controlled trial.
      A variety of other locations were used, such as space within private clinics such as physical therapy and breast clinics and rehabilitation centers (15%)
      • Beidas RS
      • Paciotti B
      • Barg F
      • et al.
      A hybrid effectiveness-implementation trial of an evidence-based exercise intervention for breast cancer survivors.
      ,
      • Korstjens I
      • Mesters I
      • Gijsen B
      • van den Borne B
      Cancer patients’ view on rehabilitation and quality of life: a programme audit.
      ,
      • Korstjens I
      • Mesters I
      • van der Peet E
      • Gijsen B
      • van den Borne B
      Quality of life of cancer survivors after physical and psychosocial rehabilitation.
      ,
      • Lee CE
      • Von Ah D
      • Szuck B
      • Lau YK
      Determinants of physical activity maintenance in breast cancer survivors after a community-based intervention.
      • Lee CE
      • Warden SJ
      • Szuck B
      • Lau YK
      A preliminary study on the efficacy of a community-based physical activity intervention on physical function-related risk factors for falls among breast cancer survivors.
      • Lopez CJ
      • Pritlove C
      • Jones JM
      • et al.
      "This is my home-based exercise”: exploring environmental influences on home-based exercise participation in oncology.
      • MacDonald AM
      • Chafranskaia A
      • Lopez CJ
      • et al.
      CaRE @ Home: pilot study of an online multidimensional cancer rehabilitation and exercise program for cancer survivors.
      ,
      • Van Gerpen RE
      • Becker BJ
      Development of an evidence-based exercise and education cancer recovery program.
      and community sites (12%) including churches, support groups, or wellness centers
      • Conlon BA
      • Kahan M
      • Martinez M
      • et al.
      Development and evaluation of the curriculum for BOLD (Bronx Oncology Living Daily) healthy living: a diabetes prevention and control program for underserved cancer survivors.
      ,
      • Dalzell MA
      • Smirnow N
      • Sateren W
      • et al.
      Rehabilitation and exercise oncology program: translating research into a model of care.
      ,
      • Murray L
      • Roth E
      • Galvin D
      • et al.
      The impact of resistive exercise and psychosocial support on quality of life and fatigue in cancer survivors via utilization of a community-based program: a case series.
      ,
      • Wurz A
      • St-Aubin A
      • Brunet J
      Breast cancer survivors’ barriers and motives for participating in a group-based physical activity program offered in the community.
      Two programs (6%) did not report specific details about settings
      • Christopher KA
      • Morrow LL
      Evaluating a community-based exercise program for women cancer survivors.
      ,
      • Ng AV
      • Cybulski AN
      • Engel AA
      • et al.
      Triathlon training for women breast cancer survivors: feasibility and initial efficacy.
      and 2 programs were delivered entirely remotely (ie, by phone or web).
      • Abbott L
      • Hooke MC
      Energy through motion: an activity intervention for cancer-related fatigue in an ambulatory infusion center.
      ,
      • Lopez CJ
      • Pritlove C
      • Jones JM
      • et al.
      "This is my home-based exercise”: exploring environmental influences on home-based exercise participation in oncology.
      ,
      • MacDonald AM
      • Chafranskaia A
      • Lopez CJ
      • et al.
      CaRE @ Home: pilot study of an online multidimensional cancer rehabilitation and exercise program for cancer survivors.
      Most programs were delivered in a group-based format for at least part of the program (76%), 7 programs explicitly stated home exercise components,
      • Abbott L
      • Hooke MC
      Energy through motion: an activity intervention for cancer-related fatigue in an ambulatory infusion center.
      ,
      • Beidas RS
      • Paciotti B
      • Barg F
      • et al.
      A hybrid effectiveness-implementation trial of an evidence-based exercise intervention for breast cancer survivors.
      ,
      • Dalzell MA
      • Smirnow N
      • Sateren W
      • et al.
      Rehabilitation and exercise oncology program: translating research into a model of care.
      ,
      • Leach HJ
      • Danyluk JM
      • Culos-Reed SN
      Design and implementation of a community-based exercise program for breast cancer patients.
      • Leach HJ
      • Danyluk JM
      • Nishimura KC
      • Culos-Reed SN
      Evaluation of a community-based exercise program for breast cancer patients undergoing treatment.
      • Leach HJ
      • Danyluk JM
      • Nishimura KC
      Culos-Reed SN. Benefits of 24 versus 12 weeks of exercise and wellness programming for women undergoing treatment for breast cancer.
      • Lee CE
      • Von Ah D
      • Szuck B
      • Lau YK
      Determinants of physical activity maintenance in breast cancer survivors after a community-based intervention.
      • Lee CE
      • Warden SJ
      • Szuck B
      • Lau YK
      A preliminary study on the efficacy of a community-based physical activity intervention on physical function-related risk factors for falls among breast cancer survivors.
      • Lopez CJ
      • Pritlove C
      • Jones JM
      • et al.
      "This is my home-based exercise”: exploring environmental influences on home-based exercise participation in oncology.
      • MacDonald AM
      • Chafranskaia A
      • Lopez CJ
      • et al.
      CaRE @ Home: pilot study of an online multidimensional cancer rehabilitation and exercise program for cancer survivors.
      ,
      • Sherman KA
      • Heard G
      • Cavanagh KL
      Psychological effects and mediators of a group multi-component program for breast cancer survivors.
      and 1 program was exclusively one-on-one.
      • Below N
      • Fisher A
      • Epstone S
      • Reynolds J
      • Pugh G
      Young adult cancer survivors’ experience of taking part in a 12-week exercise referral programme: a qualitative study of the Trekstock RENEW initiative.
      ,
      • Pugh G
      • Below N
      • Fisher A
      • Reynolds J
      • Epstone S
      Trekstock RENEW: evaluation of a 12-week exercise referral programme for young adult cancer survivors delivered by a cancer charity.
      A wide range of supports for participation were described in the included studies, such as inclusion of family members or friends,
      • Barber FD
      Effects of social support on physical activity, self-efficacy, and quality of life in adult cancer survivors and their caregivers.
      ,
      • Conlon BA
      • Kahan M
      • Martinez M
      • et al.
      Development and evaluation of the curriculum for BOLD (Bronx Oncology Living Daily) healthy living: a diabetes prevention and control program for underserved cancer survivors.
      ,
      • Greenlee HA
      • Crew KD
      • Mata JM
      • et al.
      A pilot randomized controlled trial of a commercial diet and exercise weight loss program in minority breast cancer survivors.
      • Haas BK
      • Kimmel G
      Model for a community-based exercise program for cancer survivors: taking patient care to the next level.
      • Haas BK
      • Kimmel G
      • Hermanns M
      • Deal B
      Community-based FitSTEPS for life exercise program for persons with cancer: 5-year evaluation.
      ,
      • Kimmel GT
      • Haas BK
      • Hermanns M
      The role of exercise in cancer treatment: bridging the gap.
      initial assessment or reassessment,
      • Catt S
      • Sheward J
      • Sheward E
      • Harder H
      Cancer survivors’ experiences of a community-based cancer-specific exercise programme: results of an exploratory survey.
      ,
      • Dalzell MA
      • Smirnow N
      • Sateren W
      • et al.
      Rehabilitation and exercise oncology program: translating research into a model of care.
      ,
      • Greenlee HA
      • Crew KD
      • Mata JM
      • et al.
      A pilot randomized controlled trial of a commercial diet and exercise weight loss program in minority breast cancer survivors.
      physical activity tracking,
      • Abbott L
      • Hooke MC
      Energy through motion: an activity intervention for cancer-related fatigue in an ambulatory infusion center.
      ,
      • Barber FD
      Effects of social support on physical activity, self-efficacy, and quality of life in adult cancer survivors and their caregivers.
      ,
      • Bjerre ED
      • Brasso K
      • Jorgensen AB
      • et al.
      Football compared with usual care in men with prostate cancer (FC Prostate Community Trial): a pragmatic multicentre randomized controlled trial.
      ,
      • Bruun DM
      • Bjerre E
      • Krustrup P
      • et al.
      Community-based recreational football: a novel approach to promote physical activity and quality of life in prostate cancer survivors.
      ,
      • Haas BK
      • Kimmel G
      Model for a community-based exercise program for cancer survivors: taking patient care to the next level.
      ,
      • Haas BK
      • Kimmel G
      • Hermanns M
      • Deal B
      Community-based FitSTEPS for life exercise program for persons with cancer: 5-year evaluation.
      ,
      • Kimmel GT
      • Haas BK
      • Hermanns M
      The role of exercise in cancer treatment: bridging the gap.
      ,
      • Leach HJ
      • Danyluk JM
      • Culos-Reed SN
      Design and implementation of a community-based exercise program for breast cancer patients.
      • Leach HJ
      • Danyluk JM
      • Nishimura KC
      • Culos-Reed SN
      Evaluation of a community-based exercise program for breast cancer patients undergoing treatment.
      • Leach HJ
      • Danyluk JM
      • Nishimura KC
      Culos-Reed SN. Benefits of 24 versus 12 weeks of exercise and wellness programming for women undergoing treatment for breast cancer.
      ,
      • Sherman KA
      • Heard G
      • Cavanagh KL
      Psychological effects and mediators of a group multi-component program for breast cancer survivors.
      ,
      • Uth J
      • Schmidt JF
      • Christensen JF
      • et al.
      Effects of recreational soccer in men with prostate cancer undergoing androgen deprivation therapy: study protocol for the “FC Prostate” randomized controlled trial.
      and a team or group-based format to encourage social support.
      • Brunet J
      • Saunders S
      • Gifford W
      • Thomas R
      • Hamilton R
      An exploratory qualitative study of the meaning and value of a running/walking program for women after a diagnosis of breast cancer.
      ,
      • Conlon BA
      • Kahan M
      • Martinez M
      • et al.
      Development and evaluation of the curriculum for BOLD (Bronx Oncology Living Daily) healthy living: a diabetes prevention and control program for underserved cancer survivors.
      ,
      • Foley MP
      • Barnes VA
      • Hasson SM
      Effects of a community-based multimodal exercise program on physical function and quality of life in cancer survivors: a pilot study.
      • Foley MP
      • Hasson SM
      Effects of a community-based multimodal exercise program on health-related physical fitness and physical function in breast cancer survivors: a pilot study.
      • Foley MP
      • Hasson SM
      • Kendall E
      Effects of a translational community-based multimodal exercise program on quality of life and the influence of start delay on physical function and quality of life in breast cancer survivors: a pilot study.
      ,
      • Heston AH
      • Schwartz AL
      • Justice-Gardiner H
      • Hohman KH
      Addressing physical activity needs of survivors by developing a community-based exercise program: LIVESTRONG(R) at the YMCA.
      ,
      • Korstjens I
      • Mesters I
      • Gijsen B
      • van den Borne B
      Cancer patients’ view on rehabilitation and quality of life: a programme audit.
      • Korstjens I
      • Mesters I
      • van der Peet E
      • Gijsen B
      • van den Borne B
      Quality of life of cancer survivors after physical and psychosocial rehabilitation.
      • Leach HJ
      • Danyluk JM
      • Culos-Reed SN
      Design and implementation of a community-based exercise program for breast cancer patients.
      • Leach HJ
      • Danyluk JM
      • Nishimura KC
      • Culos-Reed SN
      Evaluation of a community-based exercise program for breast cancer patients undergoing treatment.
      • Leach HJ
      • Danyluk JM
      • Nishimura KC
      Culos-Reed SN. Benefits of 24 versus 12 weeks of exercise and wellness programming for women undergoing treatment for breast cancer.
      • Lee CE
      • Von Ah D
      • Szuck B
      • Lau YK
      Determinants of physical activity maintenance in breast cancer survivors after a community-based intervention.
      • Lee CE
      • Warden SJ
      • Szuck B
      • Lau YK
      A preliminary study on the efficacy of a community-based physical activity intervention on physical function-related risk factors for falls among breast cancer survivors.
      ,
      • McGrath P
      • Joske D
      • Bouwman M
      Benefits from participation in the chemo club: psychosocial insights on an exercise program for cancer patients.
      ,
      • Ng AV
      • Cybulski AN
      • Engel AA
      • et al.
      Triathlon training for women breast cancer survivors: feasibility and initial efficacy.
      ,
      • Rajotte EJ
      • Yi JC
      • Baker KS
      • Gregerson L
      • Leiserowitz A
      • Syrjala KL
      Community-based exercise program effectiveness and safety for cancer survivors.
      Many programs reported cointerventions, the most common of which were education,
      • Beidas RS
      • Paciotti B
      • Barg F
      • et al.
      A hybrid effectiveness-implementation trial of an evidence-based exercise intervention for breast cancer survivors.
      ,
      • Brunet J
      • Saunders S
      • Gifford W
      • Thomas R
      • Hamilton R
      An exploratory qualitative study of the meaning and value of a running/walking program for women after a diagnosis of breast cancer.
      ,
      • Cheifetz O
      • Dorsay JP
      • Hladysh G
      • MacDermid J
      • Serediuk F
      • Woodhouse LJ
      CanWell: meeting the psychosocial and exercise needs of cancer survivors by translating evidence into practice.
      ,
      • Cheifetz O
      • Dorsay JP
      • MacDermid JC
      Exercise facilitators and barriers following participation in a community-based exercise and education program for cancer survivors.
      ,
      • Dalzell MA
      • Smirnow N
      • Sateren W
      • et al.
      Rehabilitation and exercise oncology program: translating research into a model of care.
      ,
      • Foley MP
      • Barnes VA
      • Hasson SM
      Effects of a community-based multimodal exercise program on physical function and quality of life in cancer survivors: a pilot study.
      • Foley MP
      • Hasson SM
      Effects of a community-based multimodal exercise program on health-related physical fitness and physical function in breast cancer survivors: a pilot study.
      • Foley MP
      • Hasson SM
      • Kendall E
      Effects of a translational community-based multimodal exercise program on quality of life and the influence of start delay on physical function and quality of life in breast cancer survivors: a pilot study.
      ,
      • Heston AH
      • Schwartz AL
      • Justice-Gardiner H
      • Hohman KH
      Addressing physical activity needs of survivors by developing a community-based exercise program: LIVESTRONG(R) at the YMCA.
      ,
      • Korstjens I
      • Mesters I
      • Gijsen B
      • van den Borne B
      Cancer patients’ view on rehabilitation and quality of life: a programme audit.
      • Korstjens I
      • Mesters I
      • van der Peet E
      • Gijsen B
      • van den Borne B
      Quality of life of cancer survivors after physical and psychosocial rehabilitation.
      • Leach HJ
      • Danyluk JM
      • Culos-Reed SN
      Design and implementation of a community-based exercise program for breast cancer patients.
      • Leach HJ
      • Danyluk JM
      • Nishimura KC
      • Culos-Reed SN
      Evaluation of a community-based exercise program for breast cancer patients undergoing treatment.
      • Leach HJ
      • Danyluk JM
      • Nishimura KC
      Culos-Reed SN. Benefits of 24 versus 12 weeks of exercise and wellness programming for women undergoing treatment for breast cancer.
      • Lee CE
      • Von Ah D
      • Szuck B
      • Lau YK
      Determinants of physical activity maintenance in breast cancer survivors after a community-based intervention.
      • Lee CE
      • Warden SJ
      • Szuck B
      • Lau YK
      A preliminary study on the efficacy of a community-based physical activity intervention on physical function-related risk factors for falls among breast cancer survivors.
      • Lopez CJ
      • Pritlove C
      • Jones JM
      • et al.
      "This is my home-based exercise”: exploring environmental influences on home-based exercise participation in oncology.
      • MacDonald AM
      • Chafranskaia A
      • Lopez CJ
      • et al.
      CaRE @ Home: pilot study of an online multidimensional cancer rehabilitation and exercise program for cancer survivors.
      ,
      • Rajotte EJ
      • Yi JC
      • Baker KS
      • Gregerson L
      • Leiserowitz A
      • Syrjala KL
      Community-based exercise program effectiveness and safety for cancer survivors.
      psychosocial support,
      • Catt S
      • Sheward J
      • Sheward E
      • Harder H
      Cancer survivors’ experiences of a community-based cancer-specific exercise programme: results of an exploratory survey.
      ,
      • Foley MP
      • Barnes VA
      • Hasson SM
      Effects of a community-based multimodal exercise program on physical function and quality of life in cancer survivors: a pilot study.
      • Foley MP
      • Hasson SM
      Effects of a community-based multimodal exercise program on health-related physical fitness and physical function in breast cancer survivors: a pilot study.
      • Foley MP
      • Hasson SM
      • Kendall E
      Effects of a translational community-based multimodal exercise program on quality of life and the influence of start delay on physical function and quality of life in breast cancer survivors: a pilot study.
      ,
      • Heston AH
      • Schwartz AL
      • Justice-Gardiner H
      • Hohman KH
      Addressing physical activity needs of survivors by developing a community-based exercise program: LIVESTRONG(R) at the YMCA.
      ,
      • Korstjens I
      • Mesters I
      • Gijsen B
      • van den Borne B
      Cancer patients’ view on rehabilitation and quality of life: a programme audit.
      ,
      • Korstjens I
      • Mesters I
      • van der Peet E
      • Gijsen B
      • van den Borne B
      Quality of life of cancer survivors after physical and psychosocial rehabilitation.
      ,
      • Murray L
      • Roth E
      • Galvin D
      • et al.
      The impact of resistive exercise and psychosocial support on quality of life and fatigue in cancer survivors via utilization of a community-based program: a case series.
      ,
      • Rajotte EJ
      • Yi JC
      • Baker KS
      • Gregerson L
      • Leiserowitz A
      • Syrjala KL
      Community-based exercise program effectiveness and safety for cancer survivors.
      and nutrition or dietary counseling.
      • Conlon BA
      • Kahan M
      • Martinez M
      • et al.
      Development and evaluation of the curriculum for BOLD (Bronx Oncology Living Daily) healthy living: a diabetes prevention and control program for underserved cancer survivors.
      ,
      • Greenlee HA
      • Crew KD
      • Mata JM
      • et al.
      A pilot randomized controlled trial of a commercial diet and exercise weight loss program in minority breast cancer survivors.
      Programs were often reported as free to participants (44%)
      • Barber FD
      Effects of social support on physical activity, self-efficacy, and quality of life in adult cancer survivors and their caregivers.
      ,
      • Below N
      • Fisher A
      • Epstone S
      • Reynolds J
      • Pugh G
      Young adult cancer survivors’ experience of taking part in a 12-week exercise referral programme: a qualitative study of the Trekstock RENEW initiative.
      ,
      • Brunet J
      • St-Aubin A
      Fostering positive experiences of group-based exercise classes after breast cancer: what do women have to say?.
      ,
      • Conlon BA
      • Kahan M
      • Martinez M
      • et al.
      Development and evaluation of the curriculum for BOLD (Bronx Oncology Living Daily) healthy living: a diabetes prevention and control program for underserved cancer survivors.
      ,
      • Cormie P
      • Lamb S
      • Newton RU
      • et al.
      Implementing exercise in cancer care: study protocol to evaluate a community-based exercise program for people with cancer.
      ,
      • Drake D
      • Falzer P
      • Xistris D
      • Robinson G
      • Roberge M
      Physical fitness training: outcomes for adult oncology patients.
      ,
      • Foley MP
      • Barnes VA
      • Hasson SM
      Effects of a community-based multimodal exercise program on physical function and quality of life in cancer survivors: a pilot study.
      • Foley MP
      • Hasson SM
      Effects of a community-based multimodal exercise program on health-related physical fitness and physical function in breast cancer survivors: a pilot study.
      • Foley MP
      • Hasson SM
      • Kendall E
      Effects of a translational community-based multimodal exercise program on quality of life and the influence of start delay on physical function and quality of life in breast cancer survivors: a pilot study.
      ,
      • Haas BK
      • Kimmel G
      Model for a community-based exercise program for cancer survivors: taking patient care to the next level.
      ,
      • Haas BK
      • Kimmel G
      • Hermanns M
      • Deal B
      Community-based FitSTEPS for life exercise program for persons with cancer: 5-year evaluation.
      ,
      • Heston AH
      • Schwartz AL
      • Justice-Gardiner H
      • Hohman KH
      Addressing physical activity needs of survivors by developing a community-based exercise program: LIVESTRONG(R) at the YMCA.
      ,
      • Kimmel GT
      • Haas BK
      • Hermanns M
      The role of exercise in cancer treatment: bridging the gap.
      ,
      • Leach HJ
      • Danyluk JM
      • Culos-Reed SN
      Design and implementation of a community-based exercise program for breast cancer patients.
      • Leach HJ
      • Danyluk JM
      • Nishimura KC
      • Culos-Reed SN
      Evaluation of a community-based exercise program for breast cancer patients undergoing treatment.
      • Leach HJ
      • Danyluk JM
      • Nishimura KC
      Culos-Reed SN. Benefits of 24 versus 12 weeks of exercise and wellness programming for women undergoing treatment for breast cancer.
      ,
      • Lopez CJ
      • Pritlove C
      • Jones JM
      • et al.
      "This is my home-based exercise”: exploring environmental influences on home-based exercise participation in oncology.
      • MacDonald AM
      • Chafranskaia A
      • Lopez CJ
      • et al.
      CaRE @ Home: pilot study of an online multidimensional cancer rehabilitation and exercise program for cancer survivors.
      • McGrath P
      • Joske D
      • Bouwman M
      Benefits from participation in the chemo club: psychosocial insights on an exercise program for cancer patients.
      ,
      • Nock NL
      • Owusu C
      • Flocke S
      • et al.
      A community-based exercise and support group program improves quality of life in African-American breast cancer survivors: a quantitative and qualitative analysis.
      ,
      • Nock NL
      • Owusu C
      • Kullman EL
      • et al.
      A community-based exercise and support group program in African-American breast cancer survivors (ABCs).
      ,
      • Pugh G
      • Below N
      • Fisher A
      • Reynolds J
      • Epstone S
      Trekstock RENEW: evaluation of a 12-week exercise referral programme for young adult cancer survivors delivered by a cancer charity.
      ,
      • Rajotte EJ
      • Yi JC
      • Baker KS
      • Gregerson L
      • Leiserowitz A
      • Syrjala KL
      Community-based exercise program effectiveness and safety for cancer survivors.
      ,
      • Santa Mina D
      • Au D
      • Brunet J
      • et al.
      Effects of the community-based Wellspring Cancer Exercise Program on functional and psychosocial outcomes in cancer survivors.
      ,
      • Swenson KK
      • Nissen MJ
      • Knippenberg K
      • et al.
      Cancer rehabilitation: outcome evaluation of a strengthening and conditioning program.
      ,
      • Van Gerpen RE
      • Becker BJ
      Development of an evidence-based exercise and education cancer recovery program.
      ,
      • Wurz A
      • St-Aubin A
      • Brunet J
      Breast cancer survivors’ barriers and motives for participating in a group-based physical activity program offered in the community.
      ; however, whether or not there was a cost to participate was not reported in 38% of programs.
      • Abbott L
      • Hooke MC
      Energy through motion: an activity intervention for cancer-related fatigue in an ambulatory infusion center.
      ,
      • Bruun DM
      • Bjerre E
      • Krustrup P
      • et al.
      Community-based recreational football: a novel approach to promote physical activity and quality of life in prostate cancer survivors.
      ,
      • Catt S
      • Sheward J
      • Sheward E
      • Harder H
      Cancer survivors’ experiences of a community-based cancer-specific exercise programme: results of an exploratory survey.
      ,
      • Christopher KA
      • Morrow LL
      Evaluating a community-based exercise program for women cancer survivors.
      ,
      • Dalzell MA
      • Smirnow N
      • Sateren W
      • et al.
      Rehabilitation and exercise oncology program: translating research into a model of care.
      ,
      • Korstjens I
      • Mesters I
      • Gijsen B
      • van den Borne B
      Cancer patients’ view on rehabilitation and quality of life: a programme audit.
      ,
      • Korstjens I
      • Mesters I
      • van der Peet E
      • Gijsen B
      • van den Borne B
      Quality of life of cancer survivors after physical and psychosocial rehabilitation.
      ,
      • Lee CE
      • Von Ah D
      • Szuck B
      • Lau YK
      Determinants of physical activity maintenance in breast cancer survivors after a community-based intervention.
      ,
      • Lee CE
      • Warden SJ
      • Szuck B
      • Lau YK
      A preliminary study on the efficacy of a community-based physical activity intervention on physical function-related risk factors for falls among breast cancer survivors.
      ,
      • Murray L
      • Roth E
      • Galvin D
      • et al.
      The impact of resistive exercise and psychosocial support on quality of life and fatigue in cancer survivors via utilization of a community-based program: a case series.
      ,
      • Ng AV
      • Cybulski AN
      • Engel AA
      • et al.
      Triathlon training for women breast cancer survivors: feasibility and initial efficacy.
      ,
      • Noble M
      • Russell C
      • Kraemer L
      • Sharratt M
      UW WELL-FIT: the impact of supervised exercise programs on physical capacity and quality of life in individuals receiving treatment for cancer.
      ,
      • Packel L
      • Claghorn KVB
      • Dekerlegand J
      Cancer-related fatigue and deconditioning: a program evaluation.
      ,
      • Perry CK
      • Campbell LP
      • Currier J
      • et al.
      An evidence-based walking program in Oregon communities: Step It Up! Survivors.
      ,
      • Sherman KA
      • Heard G
      • Cavanagh KL
      Psychological effects and mediators of a group multi-component program for breast cancer survivors.
      Reported costs ranged from CA$15 for a single group-based session
      • Kirkham AA
      • Neil-Sztramko SE
      • Morgan J
      • et al.
      Health-related physical fitness assessment in a community-based cancer rehabilitation setting.
      ,
      • Kirkham AA
      • Neil-Sztramko SE
      • Morgan J
      • et al.
      Fee-for-service cancer rehabilitation programs improve health-related quality of life.
      to US$229 for a single assessment.
      • Beidas RS
      • Paciotti B
      • Barg F
      • et al.
      A hybrid effectiveness-implementation trial of an evidence-based exercise intervention for breast cancer survivors.

      Characteristics of individuals

      Half of the programs (50%) were open to all adults with a cancer diagnosis regardless of cancer type or treatment status
      • Barber FD
      Effects of social support on physical activity, self-efficacy, and quality of life in adult cancer survivors and their caregivers.
      ,
      • Below N
      • Fisher A
      • Epstone S
      • Reynolds J
      • Pugh G
      Young adult cancer survivors’ experience of taking part in a 12-week exercise referral programme: a qualitative study of the Trekstock RENEW initiative.
      ,
      • Catt S
      • Sheward J
      • Sheward E
      • Harder H
      Cancer survivors’ experiences of a community-based cancer-specific exercise programme: results of an exploratory survey.
      • Cheifetz O
      • Dorsay JP
      • Hladysh G
      • MacDermid J
      • Serediuk F
      • Woodhouse LJ
      CanWell: meeting the psychosocial and exercise needs of cancer survivors by translating evidence into practice.
      • Cheifetz O
      • Dorsay JP
      • MacDermid JC
      Exercise facilitators and barriers following participation in a community-based exercise and education program for cancer survivors.
      • Christopher KA
      • Morrow LL
      Evaluating a community-based exercise program for women cancer survivors.
      • Conlon BA
      • Kahan M
      • Martinez M
      • et al.
      Development and evaluation of the curriculum for BOLD (Bronx Oncology Living Daily) healthy living: a diabetes prevention and control program for underserved cancer survivors.
      • Cormie P
      • Lamb S
      • Newton RU
      • et al.
      Implementing exercise in cancer care: study protocol to evaluate a community-based exercise program for people with cancer.
      • Dalzell MA
      • Smirnow N
      • Sateren W
      • et al.
      Rehabilitation and exercise oncology program: translating research into a model of care.
      ,
      • Foley MP
      • Barnes VA
      • Hasson SM
      Effects of a community-based multimodal exercise program on physical function and quality of life in cancer survivors: a pilot study.
      • Foley MP
      • Hasson SM
      Effects of a community-based multimodal exercise program on health-related physical fitness and physical function in breast cancer survivors: a pilot study.
      • Foley MP
      • Hasson SM
      • Kendall E
      Effects of a translational community-based multimodal exercise program on quality of life and the influence of start delay on physical function and quality of life in breast cancer survivors: a pilot study.
      ,
      • Haas BK
      • Kimmel G
      Model for a community-based exercise program for cancer survivors: taking patient care to the next level.
      ,
      • Haas BK
      • Kimmel G
      • Hermanns M
      • Deal B
      Community-based FitSTEPS for life exercise program for persons with cancer: 5-year evaluation.
      ,
      • Heston AH
      • Schwartz AL
      • Justice-Gardiner H
      • Hohman KH
      Addressing physical activity needs of survivors by developing a community-based exercise program: LIVESTRONG(R) at the YMCA.
      ,
      • Kimmel GT
      • Haas BK
      • Hermanns M
      The role of exercise in cancer treatment: bridging the gap.
      • Kirkham AA
      • Neil-Sztramko SE
      • Morgan J
      • et al.
      Health-related physical fitness assessment in a community-based cancer rehabilitation setting.
      • Kirkham AA
      • Neil-Sztramko SE
      • Morgan J
      • et al.
      Fee-for-service cancer rehabilitation programs improve health-related quality of life.
      ,
      • Lopez CJ
      • Pritlove C
      • Jones JM
      • et al.
      "This is my home-based exercise”: exploring environmental influences on home-based exercise participation in oncology.
      • MacDonald AM
      • Chafranskaia A
      • Lopez CJ
      • et al.
      CaRE @ Home: pilot study of an online multidimensional cancer rehabilitation and exercise program for cancer survivors.
      • McGrath P
      • Joske D
      • Bouwman M
      Benefits from participation in the chemo club: psychosocial insights on an exercise program for cancer patients.
      ,
      • Packel L
      • Claghorn KVB
      • Dekerlegand J
      Cancer-related fatigue and deconditioning: a program evaluation.
      • Perry CK
      • Campbell LP
      • Currier J
      • et al.
      An evidence-based walking program in Oregon communities: Step It Up! Survivors.
      • Pugh G
      • Below N
      • Fisher A
      • Reynolds J
      • Epstone S
      Trekstock RENEW: evaluation of a 12-week exercise referral programme for young adult cancer survivors delivered by a cancer charity.
      • Rajotte EJ
      • Yi JC
      • Baker KS
      • Gregerson L
      • Leiserowitz A
      • Syrjala KL
      Community-based exercise program effectiveness and safety for cancer survivors.
      ,
      • Santa Mina D
      • Au D
      • Brunet J
      • et al.
      Effects of the community-based Wellspring Cancer Exercise Program on functional and psychosocial outcomes in cancer survivors.
      ,
      • Swenson KK
      • Nissen MJ
      • Knippenberg K
      • et al.
      Cancer rehabilitation: outcome evaluation of a strengthening and conditioning program.
      ,
      • Van Gerpen RE
      • Becker BJ
      Development of an evidence-based exercise and education cancer recovery program.
      Other programs were limited to either adults who had completed cancer treatment (9%)
      • Drake D
      • Falzer P
      • Xistris D
      • Robinson G
      • Roberge M
      Physical fitness training: outcomes for adult oncology patients.
      ,
      • Korstjens I
      • Mesters I
      • Gijsen B
      • van den Borne B
      Cancer patients’ view on rehabilitation and quality of life: a programme audit.
      ,
      • Korstjens I
      • Mesters I
      • van der Peet E
      • Gijsen B
      • van den Borne B
      Quality of life of cancer survivors after physical and psychosocial rehabilitation.
      ,
      • Murray L
      • Roth E
      • Galvin D
      • et al.
      The impact of resistive exercise and psychosocial support on quality of life and fatigue in cancer survivors via utilization of a community-based program: a case series.
      or were currently undergoing treatment (6%).
      • Abbott L
      • Hooke MC
      Energy through motion: an activity intervention for cancer-related fatigue in an ambulatory infusion center.
      ,
      • Noble M
      • Russell C
      • Kraemer L
      • Sharratt M
      UW WELL-FIT: the impact of supervised exercise programs on physical capacity and quality of life in individuals receiving treatment for cancer.
      One-third of programs (32%) were designed only for women diagnosed with breast cancer
      • Beidas RS
      • Paciotti B
      • Barg F
      • et al.
      A hybrid effectiveness-implementation trial of an evidence-based exercise intervention for breast cancer survivors.
      ,
      • Brunet J
      • Saunders S
      • Gifford W
      • Thomas R
      • Hamilton R
      An exploratory qualitative study of the meaning and value of a running/walking program for women after a diagnosis of breast cancer.
      ,
      • Brunet J
      • St-Aubin A
      Fostering positive experiences of group-based exercise classes after breast cancer: what do women have to say?.
      ,
      • Greenlee HA
      • Crew KD
      • Mata JM
      • et al.
      A pilot randomized controlled trial of a commercial diet and exercise weight loss program in minority breast cancer survivors.
      ,
      • Jones LM
      • Reinhoudt LL
      • Hilverda F
      • Rutjes C
      • Hayes SC
      Using the integrative model of behavioral prediction to understand female breast cancer survivors’ barriers and facilitators for adherence to a community-based group-exercise program.
      ,
      • Leach HJ
      • Danyluk JM
      • Culos-Reed SN
      Design and implementation of a community-based exercise program for breast cancer patients.
      • Leach HJ
      • Danyluk JM
      • Nishimura KC
      • Culos-Reed SN
      Evaluation of a community-based exercise program for breast cancer patients undergoing treatment.
      • Leach HJ
      • Danyluk JM
      • Nishimura KC
      Culos-Reed SN. Benefits of 24 versus 12 weeks of exercise and wellness programming for women undergoing treatment for breast cancer.
      • Lee CE
      • Von Ah D
      • Szuck B
      • Lau YK
      Determinants of physical activity maintenance in breast cancer survivors after a community-based intervention.
      • Lee CE
      • Warden SJ
      • Szuck B
      • Lau YK
      A preliminary study on the efficacy of a community-based physical activity intervention on physical function-related risk factors for falls among breast cancer survivors.
      ,
      • Ng AV
      • Cybulski AN
      • Engel AA
      • et al.
      Triathlon training for women breast cancer survivors: feasibility and initial efficacy.
      ,
      • Nock NL
      • Owusu C
      • Flocke S
      • et al.
      A community-based exercise and support group program improves quality of life in African-American breast cancer survivors: a quantitative and qualitative analysis.
      ,
      • Nock NL
      • Owusu C
      • Kullman EL
      • et al.
      A community-based exercise and support group program in African-American breast cancer survivors (ABCs).
      ,
      • Sherman KA
      • Heard G
      • Cavanagh KL
      Psychological effects and mediators of a group multi-component program for breast cancer survivors.
      ,
      • Wurz A
      • St-Aubin A
      • Brunet J
      Breast cancer survivors’ barriers and motives for participating in a group-based physical activity program offered in the community.
      and 1 program was exclusively open to men with prostate cancer.
      • Bjerre ED
      • Brasso K
      • Jorgensen AB
      • et al.
      Football compared with usual care in men with prostate cancer (FC Prostate Community Trial): a pragmatic multicentre randomized controlled trial.
      ,
      • Bruun DM
      • Bjerre E
      • Krustrup P
      • et al.
      Community-based recreational football: a novel approach to promote physical activity and quality of life in prostate cancer survivors.
      ,
      • Uth J
      • Schmidt JF
      • Christensen JF
      • et al.
      Effects of recreational soccer in men with prostate cancer undergoing androgen deprivation therapy: study protocol for the “FC Prostate” randomized controlled trial.
      Additional eligibility criteria included medical clearance or referral (32%)
      • Below N
      • Fisher A
      • Epstone S
      • Reynolds J
      • Pugh G
      Young adult cancer survivors’ experience of taking part in a 12-week exercise referral programme: a qualitative study of the Trekstock RENEW initiative.
      ,
      • Cormie P
      • Lamb S
      • Newton RU
      • et al.
      Implementing exercise in cancer care: study protocol to evaluate a community-based exercise program for people with cancer.
      • Dalzell MA
      • Smirnow N
      • Sateren W
      • et al.
      Rehabilitation and exercise oncology program: translating research into a model of care.
      • Drake D
      • Falzer P
      • Xistris D
      • Robinson G
      • Roberge M
      Physical fitness training: outcomes for adult oncology patients.
      ,
      • Leach HJ
      • Danyluk JM
      • Culos-Reed SN
      Design and implementation of a community-based exercise program for breast cancer patients.
      • Leach HJ
      • Danyluk JM
      • Nishimura KC
      • Culos-Reed SN
      Evaluation of a community-based exercise program for breast cancer patients undergoing treatment.
      • Leach HJ
      • Danyluk JM
      • Nishimura KC
      Culos-Reed SN. Benefits of 24 versus 12 weeks of exercise and wellness programming for women undergoing treatment for breast cancer.
      • Lee CE
      • Von Ah D
      • Szuck B
      • Lau YK
      Determinants of physical activity maintenance in breast cancer survivors after a community-based intervention.
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