- •Hybrid functional electrical stimulation (FES) exercise combines arm cranking with FES leg cycling.
- •Hybrid FES exercise has not previously been investigated in people with multiple sclerosis (MS).
- •FES intensity during hybrid FES exercise was sufficient to enhance aerobic response.
- •Regular hybrid FES exercise might improve aerobic fitness in people with advanced MS.
Main Outcome Measures
List of abbreviations:ACE (arm crank ergometry), BPM (beats per minute), EDSS (Expanded Disability Status Scale), FES (functional electrical stimulation), MS (multiple sclerosis), RPM (revolutions per minute), V̇o2 (oxygen consumption), V̇o2max (maximum oxygen consumption), V̇o2relative (oxygen consumption relative to body weight)
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