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Trajectories of Self-Efficacy, Depressed Mood, and Anxiety From Admission to Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation to 1 Year After Discharge

      Abstract

      Objective

      Self-efficacy (SE) is an important determinant for the psychological adjustment of people with spinal cord injury (SCI). However, little is known about the course of SE during inpatient rehabilitation up to 1 year after discharge. The aim of this study was to determine latent trajectory classes of SE, depressive mood, and anxiety in people with SCI, as well as the interrelationships between these trajectories.

      Design

      Longitudinal inception cohort study.

      Setting

      Eight specialized SCI rehabilitation centers.

      Participants

      The participants (N=268) were mainly men 183 of 268 (68.3%) with a mean age of 55.6 years. Almost half had a traumatic SCI 135 of 268 (50.4%) and tetraplegia (53.7%), and the minority had a motor complete SCI (32.2%).

      Interventions

      Not applicable.

      Main Outcome Measures

      SE was measured using the University of Washington Self-Efficacy Scale. In addition, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale was used to asses distress and perform dual trajectory modeling analyses.

      Results

      Three trajectories of SE, indicating low, middle, and high SE, could be distinguished. Furthermore, a 2-class trajectory solution for depressive mood and a 4-class solution for anxiety were found to be most suitable. All trajectories were stable over time. Developmental connections between SE and depressive mood and between SE and anxiety were revealed. In particular, participants who adjusted well, reporting low scores on depressive mood and anxiety, could be identified by their high SE scores. However, the group of participants with high depressive mood scores and anxiety scores could not always be identified based on their SE trajectory.

      Conclusions

      In accordance with our hypotheses, distinct trajectories of SE, depressive mood, and anxiety were identified and high probabilities that SE trajectories were interrelated to the trajectories from depressive mood and anxiety were confirmed. Concurrent screening for SE and distress might best detect people at risk for adjustment problems.

      Keywords

      List of abbreviations:

      GBTM (group-based trajectory modeling), HADS (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale), SCI (spinal cord injury), SE (self-efficacy), UW-SES (University of Washington self-efficacy Scale)
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