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Effects of Whole-Body Vibration Training on Body Composition, Cardiometabolic Risk, and Strength in the Population Who Are Overweight and Obese: A Systematic Review With Meta-analysis

      Abstract

      Objectives

      To assess the effects of whole-body vibration training (WBVT) on body composition, metabolic and cardiovascular risk variables, and lower limb strength in participants who are overweight/obese.

      Data Sources

      A systematic review with meta-analysis was conducted in 3 databases (PubMed-MEDLINE, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library) from inception through to January 26, 2020.

      Study Selection

      : Studies analyzing the effect of WBVT on body composition variables, metabolic profile, blood pressure, heart rate, and lower limb strength in the population who are overweight/obese, with interventions of a minimum length of 2 weeks were included.

      Data Extraction

      After applying the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 23 studies involving 884 participants who were obese/overweight (experimental group: 543; weight=79.9 kg; body mass index (BMI) =31.3 kg/m2, obesity class I according to World Health Organization) were used in the quantitative analysis. The sex of the participants involved in the studies were as follows: (1) 17 studies included only female participants; (2) 1 study included only boys, and (3) 5 studies included both sexes. Meta-analysis, subgroup analysis, and meta-regression methods were used to calculate the mean difference and standardized mean difference (SMD; ± 95% confidence intervals [CIs]) as well as to analyze the effects of pre-post intervention WBVT and differences from control groups.

      Data Synthesis

      WBVT led to a significant decrease in fat mass (−1.07 kg, not clinically significant). In addition, WBVT reduced systolic blood pressure (−7.01 mmHg, clinically significant), diastolic blood pressure (−1.83 mmHg), and heart rate (−2.23 bpm), as well as increased the lower extremity strength (SMD=0.63; range, 0.40-0.86). On the other hand, WBVT did not modify the weight, BMI, muscle mass, cholesterol, triglycerides, or glucose.

      Conclusions

      WBVT could be an effective training modality to reduce blood pressure (clinically relevant) and resting heart rate. In addition, WBVT led to improved lower limb strength. However, these findings were not consistent with significant improvements on other variables associated with metabolic syndrome (body composition, cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose).

      Keywords

      List of abbreviations:

      BC (body composition), BMI (body mass index), CG (control group), CI (confidence interval), DBP (diastolic blood pressure), EG (experimental group), HDL (high-density lipoprotein), MD (mean difference), RHR (resting heart rate), SMD (standardized mean difference), SBP (systolic blood pressure), WBVT (whole-body vibration training)
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