List of abbreviations:APP (advanced practice provider), BPCI (Bundled Payments for Care Improvement), BPCI-A (Bundled Payments for Care Improvement Advanced), CMMI (Center for Medicare and Medicaid Innovation), CMS (Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services), COMPASS (COMprehensive Post-Acute Stroke Services), IRF (inpatient rehabilitation facility), SNF (skilled nursing facility), TC (transitional care), TIA (transient ischemic attack)
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National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. Post-stroke rehabilitation fact sheet. Available at:https://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/patient-caregiver-education/fact-sheets/post-stroke-rehabilitation-fact-sheet. Accessed March 10, 2020.
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The Lewin Group, Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services. CMS Bundled Payments for Care Improvement Initiative: models 2-4 year 6 evaluation and monitoring annual report. Available at: https://innovation.cms.gov/innovation-models/bundled-payments. Accessed June 24, 2020.
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Reforming how we pay for health care: the role of bundled payments. Health Aff. Available at:https://www.healthaffairs.org/do/10.1377/hblog20121213.026276/full/. Accessed November 24, 2019.
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Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services. Bundled Payments for Care Improvement (BPCI) Initiative: public toolkit. 2018. Available at: https://innovation.cms.gov/Files/x/bpci-toolkit.pdf. Accessed July 30, 2019.
- Healthcare utilization and cost trajectories post-stroke: role of caregiver and stroke factors.BMC Health Serv Res. 2018; 18: 881
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The Lewin Group, Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services. CMS Bundled Payments for Care Improvement Initiative: models 2-4 year 5 evaluation and monitoring annual report. Available at: https://downloads.cms.gov/files/cmmi/bpci-models2-4-yr5evalrpt.pdf. Accessed June 10, 2019.
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Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services. Quality measures fact sheet. Available at: https://innovation.cms.gov/media/document/bpci-advanced-my4-all-fact-sheets-sept2020. Accessed December 1, 2020.
Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services. BPCI Advanced. Available at: https://innovation.cms.gov/innovation-models/bpci-advanced. Accessed August 23, 2019.
Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services. Bundled payments for care improvement (BPCI) initiative: general information. Available at: https://innovation.cms.gov/innovation-models/bundled-payments. Accessed August 23, 2019.
The Lewin Group, Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services. CMS bundled payments for care improvement initiative models 2-4: Year 5 evaluation & monitoring annual report ‒ appendices. Available at: https://downloads.cms.gov/files/cmmi/bpci-models2-4-yr5evalrpt-app.pdf. Accessed June 10, 2019.
Supported by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (grant no. AHRQ R01 HS025723).
Disclosures: Pamela W. Duncan and Cheryl D. Bushnell have ownership in Care Directions, LLC. Beyond the conflict of interest listed above, the other authors have no conflicts of interest to state.