Original research| Volume 102, ISSUE 6, P1059-1066, June 2021

Effects of Virtual Reality and Task-Oriented Training on Hand Function and Activity Performance in Pediatric Hand Burns: A Randomized Controlled Trial

  • Fatma Alzahraa H. Kamel
    Department of Physical Therapy for Surgery, Faculty of Physical Therapy, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt

    Department of Physical Therapy, College of Medical Rehabilitation, Qassim University, Qassim, Buraidah, Saudi Arabia
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  • Maged A. Basha
    Corresponding author Maged A. Basha, PhD, Department of Physical Therapy, El-Sahel Teaching Hospital, General Organization for Teaching Hospitals and Institutes, 2 Youssef Karam St., Borham, Elsahel, Cairo Governorate 11697, Cairo, Egypt.
    Department of Physical Therapy, College of Medical Rehabilitation, Qassim University, Qassim, Buraidah, Saudi Arabia

    Department of Physical Therapy, El-Sahel Teaching Hospital, General Organization for Teaching Hospitals and Institutes, Cairo, Egypt
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Published:February 19, 2021DOI:


      • Xbox Kinect and task-oriented training improved hand function, activity performance, range of motion of fingers, grip strength, and pinch strengths as compared with traditional hand rehabilitation in pediatric hand burns.
      • Xbox Kinect is superior to task-oriented training in improvement of hand function, palmer pinch strength and activity satisfaction.
      • Xbox Kinect and task-oriented training may be an effective rehabilitation for pediatric hand burns.



      To assess the efficacy of a motion-sensing, hands-free gaming device and task-oriented training (TOT) programs on improving hand function, activity performance, and satisfaction in pediatric hand burns.


      A randomized controlled trial.


      Outpatient rehabilitation center.


      Fifty children with deep partial-thickness or full-thickness hand burns. (N=50; mean age, 10.70±1.64y; range, 7-14y)


      Children were randomized into 1 of the following 3 groups: the motion-sensing, hands-free gaming device group that used interactive video games plus traditional rehabilitation (TR); the TOT group that used real materials plus TR; and the control group that only received TR, all groups received the interventions 3 days per week for 8 weeks.

      Main Outcome Measures

      We assessed the children at the baseline and after 8 weeks of intervention. The primary outcome measures were the Jebsen-Taylor Hand Function Test, Duruoz Hand Index (DHI), and Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM). The secondary outcome measures were range of motion (ROM) of the digits, grip strength, and pinch strengths (tip, palmer, and lateral pinch).


      There was a significant increase in all measurements of the motion-sensing, hands-free gaming device and TOT groups compared with that of the control group postintervention (P<.05). There was no significant change in Jebsen-Taylor Hand Function Test, COPM performance, ROM, grip strength, and tip and lateral pinch strengths between the motion-sensing, hands-free gaming device group and TOT group (P>.05), whereas there was a significant increase in DHI, COPM satisfaction, and palmer pinch strength (P<.05) in the motion-sensing, hands-free gaming device group compared with the TOT group postintervention.


      The motion-sensing, hands-free gaming device and TOT programs resulted in significant improvement in hand function, activity performance and satisfaction, ROM of the digits, grip strength, and pinch strengths in pediatric hand burns compared with the traditional hand rehabilitation.


      List of abbreviations:

      ADL (activities of daily living), COPM (Canadian Occupational Performance Measure), DHI (Duruoz Hand Index), JTHFT (Jebsen-Taylor Hand Function Test), PHB (pediatric hand burns), ROM (range of motion), TOT (task-oriented training), TR (traditional rehabilitation), VR (virtual reality)
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