Comparative Effect of Liuzijue Qigong and Conventional Respiratory Training on Trunk Control Ability and Respiratory Muscle Function in Patients at an Early Recovery Stage From Stroke: A Randomized Controlled Trial

Published:August 11, 2020DOI:



      To compare the effects of Liuzijue Qigong and conventional respiratory training on trunk control ability and respiratory muscle functions in patients at an early recovery stage from stroke.


      A single-blind, randomized controlled trial.


      A hospital.


      Patients (N=60) within 2 months poststroke.


      The experimental group (n=30) received conventional rehabilitation training combined with Liuzijue exercise, and the control group (n=30) received conventional rehabilitation training combined with conventional respiration training. The training in the 2 groups was conducted 5 times per week for 3 weeks.

      Main Outcome Measures

      Trunk Impairment Scale (TIS), maximum inspiratory pressure (MIP), maximum expiratory pressure (MEP), forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), peak expiratory flow (PEF), maximum expiratory mid-flow (MMEF), diaphragmatic movement, the change of intra-abdominal pressure (IAP), Berg Balance Scale (BBS), and Modified Barthel Index (MBI). All outcome measures were assessed twice (at baseline and 3 weeks).


      Both groups significantly improved in TIS, MIP, FVC, PEF, and the change of IAP, BBS, and MBI when pre- and postassessments (P<.05) were compared. Compared with the control group, there was a significant difference in the experimental group in the static sitting balance subscale (P=.014), dynamic balance subscale (P=.001), coordination subscale (P<.001), TIS total scores (P<.001; effect size [ES]=0.9), MIP (P=.012; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.23-17.69; ES=0.67), MEP (P=.015; 95% CI, 1.85-16.57; ES=0.65), change of IAP (P=.001), and MBI (P=.016; 95% CI, 1.51-14.16; ES=0.64). No significant differences were found between the 2 groups in FEV1 (P=.24), FVC (P=.43), PEF (P=.202), MMEF (P=.277), the diaphragmatic movement of quiet breathing (P=.146), deep breathing (P=.102), and BBS (P=.124).


      Liuzijue exercise showed more changes than conventional respiratory training in improving trunk control ability, respiratory muscle functions, and activities of daily living ability in patients at an early recovery stage from stroke.


      List of abbreviations:

      %pred (percentage of the predicted values), ADL (activities of daily living), BBS (Berg Balance Scale), DB (deep breathing), FEV1 (forced expiratory volume in the first second), FVC (forced vital capacity), IAP (intra-abdominal pressure), IQR (interquartile range), MBI (Modified Barthel Index), MEP (maximum expiratory pressure), MIP (maximum inspiratory pressure), MMEF (maximum expiratory mid-flow), QB (quiet breathing), PEF (peak expiratory flow), TIS (Trunk Impairment Scale), TrA (transverse abdominis)
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