Original research| Volume 101, ISSUE 9, P1523-1531, September 2020

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Data Mining to Understand How Health Status Preceding Traumatic Brain Injury Affects Functional Outcome: A Population-Based Sex-Stratified Study



      To understand how health status preceding traumatic brain injury (TBI) affects relative functional gain after inpatient rehabilitation using a data mining approach.


      Population-based, sex-stratified, retrospective cohort study using health administrative data from Ontario, Canada (39% of the Canadian population).


      Inpatient rehabilitation.


      Patients 14 years or older (N=5802; 63.4% male) admitted to inpatient rehabilitation within 1 year of a TBI-related acute care discharge between April 1, 2008, and March 31, 2015.


      Not applicable.

      Main Outcome Measures

      Relative functional gain (RFG) in percentage, calculated as ([discharge FIM−admission FIM]/[126−admission FIM]×100). Health status prior to TBI was identified and internally validated using a data mining approach that categorized all International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision, codes for each patient.


      The average RFG was 52.8%±27.6% among male patients and 51.6%±27.1% among female patients. Sex-specific Bonferroni adjusted multivariable linear regressions identified 10 factors of preinjury health status related to neurology, emergency medicine, cardiology, psychiatry, geriatrics, and gastroenterology that were significantly associated with reduced RFG in FIM for male patients. Only 1 preinjury health status category, geriatrics, was significantly associated with RFG in female patients.


      Comorbid health conditions present up to 5 years preceding the TBI event were significantly associated with RFG. These findings should be considered when planning and executing interventions to maximize functional gain and to support an interdisciplinary approach. Best practices guidelines and clinical interventions for older male and female patients with TBI should be developed given the increasingly aging population with TBI.


      List of abbreviations:

      DAD (Discharge Abstract Database), ICD-10 (International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision), LOS (length of stay), NRS (National Rehabilitation Reporting System), RFG (relative functional gain), TBI (traumatic brain injury)
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