A Systematic Review of the Incidence, Prevalence, Costs, and Activity and Work Limitations of Amputation, Osteoarthritis, Rheumatoid Arthritis, Back Pain, Multiple Sclerosis, Spinal Cord Injury, Stroke, and Traumatic Brain Injury in the United States: A 2019 Update

Published:April 24, 2020DOI:



      To present recent evidence on the prevalence, incidence, costs, activity limitations, and work limitations of common conditions requiring rehabilitation.

      Data Sources

      Medline (PubMed), SCOPUS, Web of Science, and the gray literature were searched for relevant articles about amputation, osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, back pain, multiple sclerosis, spinal cord injury, stroke, and traumatic brain injury.

      Study Selection

      Relevant articles (N=106) were included.

      Data Extraction

      Two investigators independently reviewed articles and selected relevant articles for inclusion. Quality grading was performed using the Methodological Evaluation of Observational Research Checklist and Newcastle-Ottawa Quality Assessment Form.

      Data Synthesis

      The prevalence of back pain in the past 3 months was 33.9% among community-dwelling adults, and patients with back pain contribute $365 billion in all-cause medical costs. Osteoarthritis is the next most prevalent condition (approximately 10.4%), and patients with this condition contribute $460 billion in all-cause medical costs. These 2 conditions are the most prevalent and costly (medically) of the illnesses explored in this study. Stroke follows these conditions in both prevalence (2.5%-3.7%) and medical costs ($28 billion). Other conditions may have a lower prevalence but are associated with relatively higher per capita effects.


      Consistent with previous findings, back pain and osteoarthritis are the most prevalent conditions with high aggregate medical costs. By contrast, other conditions have a lower prevalence or cost but relatively higher per capita costs and effects on activity and work. The data are extremely heterogeneous, which makes anything beyond broad comparisons challenging. Additional information is needed to determine the relative impact of each condition.


      List of abbreviations:

      ADL (activities of daily living), AHA (American Heart Association), GBD (Global Health Burden), IHME (Institute of Health Metrics Evaluation), LEA (lower extremity amputation), MEPS (Medical Expenditure Panel Survey), MORE (Methodological Evaluation of Observational Research), MS (multiple sclerosis), NIS (National Inpatient System), OA (osteoarthritis), RA (rheumatoid arthritis), SCI (spinal cord injury), TBI (traumatic brain injury)
      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'


      Subscribe to Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect


        • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
        Disability impacts all of us.
        (Available at:)
        • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
        Disability and health healthcare cost data.
        (Available at:)
        • Social Security Administration
        Annual statistical report on the social security disability insurance program, 2018.
        (Available at:)
        Date: October 2019
        Date accessed: December 6, 2019
        • Social Security Administration
        Summary: Actuarial Status of the Social Security Trust Funds.
        (Available at:)
        Date: April 2019
        Date accessed: December 6, 2019
        • Ma V.Y.
        • Chan L.
        • Carruthers K.J.
        Incidence, prevalence, costs, and impact on disability of common conditions requiring rehabilitation in the United States: stroke, spinal cord injury, traumatic brain injury, multiple sclerosis, osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, limb loss, and back pain.
        Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2014; 95: 986-995
        • Chan L.
        • Koepsell T.D.
        • Deyo R.A.
        • et al.
        The effect of Medicare's payment system for rehabilitation hospitals on length of stay, charges, and total payments.
        N Engl J Med. 1997; 337: 978-985
        • Pourhoseingholi M.A.
        • Vahedi M.
        • Rahimzadeh M.
        Sample size calculation in medical studies.
        Gastroenterol Hepatol Bed Bench. 2013; 6: 14-17
      1. American FactFinder. Available at: Accessed October 15, 2019.

        • Arya R.
        • Antonisamy B.
        • Kumar S.
        Sample size estimation in prevalence studies.
        Indian J Pediatr. 2012; 79: 1482-1488
        • Shamliyan T.
        • Kane R.L.
        • Dickinson S.
        A systematic review of tools used to assess the quality of observational studies that examine incidence or prevalence and risk factors for diseases.
        J Clin Epidemiol. 2010; 63: 1061-1070
        • Shamliyan T.A.
        • Kane R.L.
        • Ansari M.T.
        • et al.
        AHRQ methods for effective health care.
        Development of quality criteria to evaluate nontherapeutic studies of incidence, prevalence, or risk factors of chronic diseases: pilot study of new checklists. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Rockville2011
        • Deeks J.J.
        • Dinnes J.
        • D’Amico R.
        • Sowden A.J.
        • et al.
        Evaluating non-randomised intervention studies.
        Tunbridge Wells. 7. Gray Publishing, 2003
        • Wells G.A.
        • Shea B.
        • O'Connell D.
        • et al.
        The Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS) for assessing the quality of nonrandomised studies in meta-analyses.
        (Available at:)
        • Hresko A.
        • Lin T.C.
        • Solomon D.H.
        Medical care costs associated with rheumatoid arthritis in the US: a systematic literature review and meta-analysis.
        Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken). 2018; 70: 1431-1438
        • United States Department of Labor: Bureau of Labor Statistics
        Consumer Price Index (CPI) Databases.
        (Available at:)
        Date accessed: December 4, 2019
        • Moher D.
        • Liberati A.
        • Tetzlaff J.
        • Altman D.G.
        The PRISMA Group Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses: the PRISMA statement.
        PLoS Med. 2009; 6e1000097
        • Ziegler-Graham K.
        • MacKenzie E.J.
        • Ephraim P.L.
        • Travison T.G.
        • Brookmeyer R.
        Estimating the prevalence of limb loss in the United States: 2005 to 2050.
        Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2008; 89: 422-429
        • Gregg E.W.
        • Li Y.
        • Wang J.
        • et al.
        Changes in diabetes-related complications in the United States, 1990-2010.
        N Engl J Med. 2014; 370: 1514-1523
        • Narres M.
        • Kvitkina T.
        • Claessen H.
        • et al.
        Incidence of lower extremity amputations in the diabetic compared with the non-diabetic population: a systematic review.
        PLoS One. 2017; 12e0182081
        • Geiss L.S.
        • Li Y.
        • Hora I.
        • Albright A.
        • Rolka D.
        • Gregg E.W.
        Resurgence of diabetes-related nontraumatic lower-extremity amputation in the young and middle-aged adult U.S. population.
        Diabetes Care. 2019; 42: 50-54
        • Newhall K.
        • Spangler E.
        • Dzebisashvili N.
        • Goodman D.C.
        • Goodney P.
        Amputation rates for patients with diabetes and peripheral arterial disease: the effects of race and region.
        Ann Vasc Surg. 2016; 30: 292-298
        • Margolis D.J.
        • Hoffstad O.
        • Weibe D.J.
        Lower-extremity amputation risk is associated with variation in behavioral risk factor surveillance system responses.
        Diabetes Care. 2014; 37: 2296-2301
        • MacKenzie E.J.
        • Jones A.S.
        • Bosse M.J.
        • et al.
        Health-care costs associated with amputation or reconstruction of a limb-threatening injury.
        J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2007; 89: 1685-1692
        • Goodney P.P.
        • Travis L.L.
        • Brooke B.S.
        • et al.
        Relationship between regional spending on vascular care and amputation rate.
        JAMA Surg. 2014; 149: 34-42
        • Yin H.
        • Radican L.
        • Kong S.X.
        A study of regional variation in the inpatient cost of lower extremity amputation among patients with diabetes in the United States.
        J Med Econ. 2013; 16: 820-827
        • Chopra A.
        • Azarbal A.F.
        • Jung E.
        • et al.
        Ambulation and functional outcome after major lower extremity amputation.
        J Vasc Surg. 2018; 67: 1521-1529
        • Tennent D.J.
        • Polfer E.M.
        • Sgromolo N.M.
        • Krueger C.A.
        • Potter B.K.
        Characterization of disability following traumatic through knee and transfemoral amputations.
        Injury. 2018; 49: 1193-1196
        • MacKenzie E.J.
        • Bosse M.J.
        • Kellam J.F.
        • et al.
        Early predictors of long-term work disability after major limb trauma.
        J Trauma. 2006; 61: 688-694
        • Yang H.
        • Haldeman S.
        Behavior-related factors associated with low back pain in the US adult population.
        Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2018; 43: 28-34
        • Yang H.
        • Haldeman S.
        • Lu M.L.
        • Baker D.
        Low back pain prevalence and related workplace psychosocial risk factors: a study using data from the 2010 National Health Interview Survey.
        J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 2016; 39: 459-472
        • Shmagel A.
        • Foley R.
        • Ibrahim H.
        Epidemiology of chronic low back pain in US adults: data from the 2009-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.
        Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken). 2016; 68: 1688-1694
        • United States Bone and Joint Initiative
        The Burden of Musculoskeletal Diseases in the United States (BMUS) Fourth Edition.
        (Available at:)
        Date accessed: December 20, 2019
        • Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation
        GBD Results Tool.
        (Available at:)
        Date accessed: December 9, 2019
        • Marshall L.M.
        • Litwack-Harrison S.
        • Makris U.E.
        • et al.
        A prospective study of back pain and risk of falls among older community-dwelling men.
        J Gerontol Biol Sci Med Sci. 2017; 72: 1264-1269
        • Marshall L.M.
        • Litwack-Harrison S.
        • Cawthon P.M.
        • et al.
        A prospective study of back pain and risk of falls among older community-dwelling women.
        J Gerontol Biol Sci Med Sci. 2016; 71: 1177-1183
      2. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. Total expenditures in millions by condition, United States, 2015. Medical Expenditure Panel Survey. Available at: Accessed December 13, 2019.

        • Ivanova J.I.
        • Birnbaum H.G.
        • Schiller M.
        • Kantor E.
        • Johnstone B.M.
        • Swindle R.W.
        Real-world practice patterns, health-care utilization, and costs in patients with low back pain: the long road to guideline-concordant care.
        Spine J. 2011; 11: 622-632
        • Tymecka-Woszczerowicz A.
        • Wrona W.
        • Kowalski P.M.
        • Hermanowski T.
        Indirect costs of back pain - Review.
        Polish Ann Med. 2015; 22: 143
        • Shraim M.
        • Cifuentes M.
        • Willetts J.L.
        • Marucci-Wellman H.R.
        • Pransky G.
        Regional socioeconomic disparities in outcomes for workers with low back pain in the United States.
        Am J Ind Med. 2017; 60: 472-483
        • Murray C.J.
        • Atkinson C.
        • Bhalla K.
        • et al.
        The state of US health, 1990-2010: burden of diseases, injuries, and risk factors.
        JAMA. 2013; 310: 591-608
        • Makris U.E.
        • Weinreich M.A.
        • Fraenkel L.
        • Han L.
        • Leo-Summers L.
        • Gill T.M.
        Restricting back pain and subsequent disability in activities of daily living among community-living older adults.
        J Aging Health. 2018; 30: 1482-1494
        • Wallin M.T.
        • Culpepper W.J.
        • Campbell J.D.
        • et al.
        The prevalence of MS in the United States: a population-based estimate using health claims data.
        Neurology. 2019; 92: e1029-e1040
        • Dilokthornsakul P.
        • Valuck R.J.
        • Nair K.V.
        • Corboy J.R.
        • Allen R.R.
        • Campbell J.D.
        Multiple sclerosis prevalence in the United States commercially insured population.
        Neurology. 2016; 86: 1014-1021
        • Chen A.Y.
        • Chonghasawat A.O.
        • Leadholm K.L.
        Multiple sclerosis: frequency, cost, and economic burden in the United States.
        J Clin Neurosci. 2017; 45: 180-186
        • Hartung D.M.
        Economics and cost-effectiveness of multiple sclerosis therapies in the USA.
        Neurotherapeutics. 2017; 14: 1018-1026
        • Jones E.
        • Pike J.
        • Marshall T.
        • Ye X.
        Quantifying the relationship between increased disability and health care resource utilization, quality of life, work productivity, health care costs in patients with multiple sclerosis in the US.
        BMC Health Serv Res. 2016; 16: 294
        • Carroll C.A.
        • Fairman K.A.
        • Lage M.J.
        Updated cost-of-care estimates for commercially insured patients with multiple sclerosis: retrospective observational analysis of medical and pharmacy claims data.
        BMC Health Serv Res. 2014; 14: 286
        • Parisé H.
        • Laliberté F.
        • Lefebvre P.
        • et al.
        Direct and indirect cost burden associated with multiple sclerosis relapses: excess costs of persons with MS and their spouse caregivers.
        J Neurol Sci. 2013; 330: 71-77
        • Bishop M.
        • Chan F.
        • Rumrill P.D.
        • et al.
        Employment among working-age adults with multiple sclerosis: a data-mining approach to identifying employment interventions.
        Rehabil Res Policy Edu. 2015; 29: 135-152
        • Krause J.S.
        • Dismuke-Greer C.E.
        • Jarnecke M.
        • Li C.
        • Reed K.S.
        • Rumrill P.
        Employment and gainful earnings among those with multiple sclerosis.
        Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2019; 100: 931-937
        • Krause J.S.
        • Rumrill P.
        • Dismuke-Greer C.E.
        • Jarnecke M.
        Quality employment outcomes after multiple sclerosis: A comparison of participants from a specialty hospital and the National MS Society.
        J Vocat Rehabil. 2018; 48: 177-186
        • Cisternas M.G.
        • Murphy L.
        • Sacks J.J.
        • Solomon D.H.
        • Pasta D.J.
        • Helmick C.G.
        Alternative methods for defining osteoarthritis and the impact on estimating prevalence in a US population-based survey.
        Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken). 2016; 68: 574-580
        • Deshpande B.R.
        • Katz J.N.
        • Solomon D.H.
        • et al.
        Number of persons with symptomatic knee osteoarthritis in the US: impact of race and ethnicity, age, sex, and obesity.
        Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken). 2016; 68: 1743-1750
        • Kim C.
        • Linsenmeyer K.D.
        • Vlad S.C.
        • et al.
        Prevalence of radiographic and symptomatic hip osteoarthritis in an urban United States community: the Framingham osteoarthritis study.
        Arthritis Rheumatol. 2014; 66: 3013-3017
        • Losina E.
        • Weinstein A.M.
        • Reichmann W.M.
        • et al.
        Lifetime risk and age at diagnosis of symptomatic knee osteoarthritis in the US.
        Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken). 2013; 65: 703-711
        • Moss A.S.
        • Murphy L.B.
        • Helmick C.G.
        • et al.
        Annual incidence rates of hip symptoms and three hip OA outcomes from a US population-based cohort study: the Johnston County Osteoarthritis Project.
        Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2016; 24: 1518-1527
        • Torio C.M.
        • Moore B.J.
        National inpatient hospital costs: the most expensive conditions by payer, 2013: statistical brief #204.
        Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP) statistical briefs. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Rockville2016
        • Wang S.X.
        • Ganguli A.X.
        • Bodhani A.
        • Medema J.K.
        • Reichmann W.M.
        • Macaulay D.
        Healthcare resource utilization and costs by age and joint location among osteoarthritis patients in a privately insured population.
        J Med Econ. 2017; 20: 1299-1306
        • Losina E.
        • Paltiel A.D.
        • Weinstein A.M.
        • et al.
        Lifetime medical costs of knee osteoarthritis management in the United States: impact of extending indications for total knee arthroplasty.
        Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken). 2015; 67: 203-215
        • Ong K.L.
        • Runa M.
        • Lau E.
        • Altman R.D.
        Cost-of-illness of knee osteoarthritis: potential cost savings by not undergoing arthroplasty within the first 2 years.
        Clinicoecon Outcomes Res. 2019; 11: 245-255
        • Barbour K.E.
        • Helmick C.G.
        • Boring M.
        • Brady T.J.
        Vital signs: prevalence of doctor-diagnosed arthritis and arthritis-attributable activity limitation - United States, 2013-2015.
        MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2017; 66: 246-253
        • Hunter T.M.
        • Boytsov N.N.
        • Zhang X.
        • Schroeder K.
        • Michaud K.
        • Araujo A.B.
        Prevalence of rheumatoid arthritis in the United States adult population in healthcare claims databases, 2004-2014.
        Rheumatol Int. 2017; 37: 1551-1557
        • Crane M.M.
        • Juneja M.
        • Allen J.
        • et al.
        Epidemiology and treatment of new-onset and established rheumatoid arthritis in an insured US population.
        Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken). 2015; 67: 1646-1655
        • Chen C.I.
        • Wang L.
        • Wei W.
        • Yuce H.
        • Phillips K.
        Burden of rheumatoid arthritis among US Medicare population: co-morbidities, health-care resource utilization and costs.
        Rheumatol Adv Pract. 2018; 2: rky005
        • Li N.
        • Chan E.
        • Peterson S.
        The economic burden of depression among adults with rheumatoid arthritis in the United States.
        J Med Econ. 2019; 22: 372-378
        • Strand V.
        • Tundia N.
        • Song Y.
        • Macaulay D.
        • Fuldeore M.
        Economic burden of patients with inadequate response to targeted immunomodulators for rheumatoid arthritis.
        J Manag Care Spec Pharm. 2018; 24: 344-352
        • Gunnarsson C.
        • Chen J.
        • Rizzo J.A.
        • Ladapo J.A.
        • Naim A.
        • Lofland J.H.
        The employee absenteeism costs of rheumatoid arthritis: evidence from US National Survey Data.
        J Occup Environ Med. 2015; 57: 635-642
        • Myasoedova E.
        • Davis J.M.
        • Achenbach S.J.
        • Matteson E.L.
        • Crowson C.S.
        Rising prevalence of functional disability in patients with rheumatoid arthritis over 20 years.
        Ann Rheum Dis. 2018; 77 (54-54)
      3. Global, regional, and national burden of traumatic brain injury and spinal cord injury, 1990-2016: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016.
        Lancet Neurol. 2019; 18: 56-87
        • National Spinal Cord Injury Center
        Spinal cord injury: facts and figures at a glance.
        (Available at:)
        Date: 2019
        Date accessed: December 4, 2019
        • Armour B.S.
        • Courtney-Long E.A.
        • Fox M.H.
        • Fredine H.
        • Cahill A.
        Prevalence and causes of paralysis—United States, 2013.
        Am J Public Health. 2016; 106: 1855-1857
        • Jain N.B.
        • Ayers G.D.
        • Peterson E.N.
        • et al.
        Traumatic spinal cord injury in the United States, 1993-2012.
        JAMA. 2015; 313: 2236-2243
        • Selvarajah S.
        • Hammond E.R.
        • Haider A.H.
        • et al.
        The burden of acute traumatic spinal cord injury among adults in the united states: an update.
        J Neurotrauma. 2014; 31: 228-238
        • Mahabaleshwarkar R.
        • Khanna R.
        National hospitalization burden associated with spinal cord injuries in the United States.
        Spinal Cord. 2014; 52: 139-144
        • Margolis J.M.
        • Juneau P.
        • Sadosky A.
        • Cappelleri J.C.
        • Bryce T.N.
        • Nieshoff E.C.
        Health care resource utilization and medical costs of spinal cord injury with neuropathic pain in a commercially insured population in the United States.
        Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2014; 95: 2279-2287
        • DeVivo M.
        • Chen Y.
        • Mennemeyer S.
        • Deutsch A.
        Costs of care following spinal cord injury.
        Top Spinal Cord Inj Rehabil. 2011; 16: 1-9
        • Asemota A.O.
        • Ahmed A.K.
        • Purvis T.E.
        • Passias P.G.
        • Goodwin C.R.
        • Sciubba D.M.
        Analysis of cervical spine injuries in elderly patients from 2001 to 2010 using a nationwide database: increasing incidence, overall mortality, and inpatient hospital charges.
        World Neurosurg. 2018; 120: e114-e130
        • Berkowitz M.
        • O'Leary P.K.
        • Kruse D.L.
        • Harvey C.
        Spinal cord injury: an analysis of medical and social costs.
        Demos Medical, New York1998
        • DiPiro N.D.
        • Li C.
        • Krause J.S.
        A longitudinal study of self-reported spasticity among individuals with chronic spinal cord injury.
        Spinal Cord. 2018; 56: 218-225
        • Hall O.T.
        • McGrath R.P.
        • Peterson M.D.
        • et al.
        The Burden of Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury in the United States: Disability-Adjusted Life Years.
        Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2019; 100: 95-100
        • Trenaman L.
        • Miller W.C.
        • Querée M.
        • Escorpizo R.
        Modifiable and non-modifiable factors associated with employment outcomes following spinal cord injury: A systematic review.
        J Spinal Cord Med. 2015; 38: 422-431
        • Ottomanelli L.
        • Lind L.
        Review of critical factors related to employment after spinal cord injury: implications for research and vocational services.
        J Spinal Cord Med. 2009; 32: 503-531
        • Benjamin E.J.
        • Muntner P.
        • Alonso A.
        • et al.
        Heart disease and stroke statistics-2019 update: a report from the American Heart Association.
        Circulation. 2019; 139: e56-528
        • Blackwell D.L.V.M.
        Tables of summary health statistics for U.S. adults: 2017 National Health Interview Survey. National Center for Health Statistics.
        (Available at:)
        Date: 2018
        Date accessed: July 22, 2019
        • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
        National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS). National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Data 2015-2016.
        (Available at:)
        Date: 2017
        Date accessed: July 22, 2019
        • Madsen T.E.
        • Khoury J.
        • Alwell K.
        • et al.
        Sex-specific stroke incidence over time in the Greater Cincinnati/Northern Kentucky Stroke Study.
        Neurology. 2017; 89: 990-996
        • Koton S.
        • Schneider A.L.
        • Rosamond W.D.
        • et al.
        Stroke incidence and mortality trends in US communities, 1987 to 2011.
        JAMA. 2014; 312: 259-268
        • Fang M.C.
        • Perraillon M.C.
        • Ghosh K.
        • Cutler D.M.
        • Rosen A.B.
        Trends in stroke rates, risk, and outcomes in the United States, 1988 to 2008.
        Am J Med. 2014; 127: 608-615
        • Yacoub H.A.
        • Al-Qudah Z.A.
        • Khan H.M.
        • Farhad K.
        • Ji A.B.
        • Souayah N.
        Trends in outcome and hospitalization cost among adult patients with acute ischemic stroke in the United States.
        J Vasc Interv Neurol. 2015; 8: 19-23
        • Tong X.
        • George M.G.
        • Gillespie C.
        • Merritt R.
        Trends in hospitalizations and cost associated with stroke by age, United States 2003-2012.
        Int J Stroke. 2016; 11: 874-881
        • Chinthammit C.
        • Coull B.M.
        • Nimworapan M.
        • Bhattacharjee S.
        Co-occurring chronic conditions and economic burden among stroke survivors in the United States: a propensity score-matched analysis.
        J Stroke Cardiovasc Dis. 2017; 26: 393-402
        • Lekoubou A.
        • Bishu K.G.
        • Ovbiagele B.
        Nationwide healthcare expenditures among hypertensive individuals with stroke: 2003-2014.
        J Stroke Cardiovasc Dis. 2018; 27: 1760-1769
        • Stepanova M.
        • Venkatesan C.
        • Altaweel L.
        • Mishra A.
        • Younossi Z.M.
        Recent trends in inpatient mortality and resource utilization for patients with stroke in the United States: 2005-2009.
        J Stroke Cardiovasc Dis. 2013; 22: 491-499
        • Mu F.
        • Hurley D.
        • Betts K.A.
        • et al.
        Real-world costs of ischemic stroke by discharge status.
        Curr Med Res Opin. 2017; 33: 371-378
        • Johnson B.H.
        • Bonafede M.M.
        • Watson C.
        Short- and longer-term health-care resource utilization and costs associated with acute ischemic stroke.
        Clinicoecon Outcomes Res. 2016; 8: 53-61
        • Katan M.
        • Luft A.
        Global burden of stroke.
        Semin Neurol. 2018; 38: 208-211
        • Wang G.
        • Zhang Z.
        • Ayala C.
        • Dunet D.O.
        • Fang J.
        • George M.G.
        Costs of hospitalization for stroke patients aged 18-64 years in the United States.
        J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis. 2014; 23: 861-868
        • RTI International
        Cardiovascular Disease: A Costly Burden for America - Projections through 2035.
        (Available at:)
        • Ovbiagele B.
        • Goldstein L.B.
        • Higashida R.T.
        • et al.
        Forecasting the future of stroke in the United States: a policy statement from the American Heart Association and American Stroke Association.
        Stroke. 2013; 44: 2361-2375
        • Joo H.
        • Dunet D.O.
        • Fang J.
        • Wang G.
        Cost of informal caregiving associated with stroke among the elderly in the United States.
        Neurology. 2014; 83: 1831-1837
        • Brenner A.B.
        • Burke J.F.
        • Skolarus L.E.
        Moving toward an understanding of disability in older US stroke survivors.
        J Aging Health. 2018; 30: 75-104
        • Wing J.J.
        • Burke J.F.
        • Clarke P.J.
        • Feng C.
        • Skolarus L.E.
        The role of the environment in falls among stroke survivors.
        Arch Gerontol Geriatr. 2017; 72: 1-5
        • Skolarus L.E.
        • Burke J.F.
        • Brown D.L.
        • Freedman V.A.
        Understanding stroke survivorship: expanding the concept of poststroke disability.
        Stroke. 2014; 45: 224-230
        • Corrigan J.D.
        • Yang J.
        • Singichetti B.
        • Manchester K.
        • Bogner J.
        Lifetime prevalence of traumatic brain injury with loss of consciousness.
        Inj Prev. 2018; 24: 396-404
        • Whiteneck G.G.
        • Cuthbert J.P.
        • Corrigan J.D.
        • Bogner J.A.
        Prevalence of self-reported lifetime history of traumatic brain injury and associated disability: a statewide population-based survey.
        J Head Trauma Rehabil. 2016; 31: E55-E62
        • Taylor C.A.
        • Bell J.M.
        • Breiding M.J.
        • Xu L.
        Traumatic brain injury-related emergency department visits, hospitalizations, and deaths - United States, 2007 and 2013.
        MMWR Surveill Summ. 2017; 66: 1-16
        • Cancelliere C.
        • Coronado V.G.
        • Taylor C.A.
        • Xu L.
        Epidemiology of isolated versus nonisolated mild traumatic brain injury treated in emergency departments in the United States, 2006-2012: sociodemographic characteristics.
        J Head Trauma Rehabil. 2017; 32: E37-E46
        • Kerr Z.Y.
        • Harmon K.J.
        • Marshall S.W.
        • Proescholdbell S.K.
        • Waller A.E.
        The epidemiology of traumatic brain injuries treated in emergency departments in North Carolina, 2010-2011.
        N C Med J. 2014; 75: 8
        • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
        Surveillance report of traumatic brain injury-related emergency department visits, hospitalizations, and deaths.
        (Available at:)
        • Marin J.R.
        • Weaver M.D.
        • Mannix R.C.
        Burden of USA hospital charges for traumatic brain injury.
        Brain Inj. 2017; 31: 24-31
        • Finkelstein E.A.
        • Corso P.S.
        • Miller T.R.
        Incidence and economic burden of injuries in the United States.
        Oxford University Press, New York2006
        • Nelson L.D.
        • Temkin N.R.
        • Dikmen S.
        • et al.
        Recovery after mild traumatic brain injury in patients presenting to US level I trauma centers: a Transforming Research and Clinical Knowledge in Traumatic Brain Injury (TRACK-TBI) study.
        JAMA Neurol. 2019 Jun 3; ([Epub ahead of print])
        • Brooks J.C.
        • Strauss D.J.
        • Shavelle R.M.
        • Paculdo D.R.
        • Hammond F.M.
        • Harrison-Felix C.L.
        Long-term disability and survival in traumatic brain injury: results from the National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research Model Systems.
        Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2013; 94: 2203-2209
        • Cuthbert J.P.
        • Harrison-Felix C.
        • Corrigan J.D.
        • Bell J.M.
        • Haarbauer-Krupa J.K.
        • Miller A.C.
        Unemployment in the United States after traumatic brain injury for working-age individuals: prevalence and associated factors 2 years postinjury.
        J Head Trauma Rehabil. 2015; 30: 160-174
        • DiSanto D.
        • Kumar R.G.
        • Juengst S.B.
        • et al.
        Employment stability in the first 5 years after moderate-to-severe traumatic brain injury.
        Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2019; 100: 412-421
        • Dillahunt-Aspillaga C.
        • Nakase-Richardson R.
        • Hart T.
        • et al.
        Predictors of employment outcomes in veterans with traumatic brain injury: A VA traumatic brain injury model systems study.
        J Head Trauma Rehabil. 2017; 32: 271-282
        • Barbour K.E.
        • Moss S.
        • Croft J.B.
        • et al.
        Geographic variations in arthritis prevalence, health-related characteristics, and management - United States, 2015.
        MMWR Surveill Summ. 2018; 67: 1-28
        • Murphy L.B.
        • Cisternas M.G.
        • Pasta D.J.
        • Helmick C.G.
        • Yelin E.H.
        Medical expenditures and earnings losses among US adults with arthritis in 2013.
        Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken). 2018; 70: 869-876
        • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
        Osteoarthritis (OA). January 10, 2019.
        (Available at:)
        • Bernhard M.
        • Gries A.
        • Kremer P.
        • Böttiger B.W.
        Spinal cord injury (SCI)—prehospital management.
        Resuscitation. 2005; 66: 127-139
        • Pretz C.R.
        • Kozlowski A.J.
        • Chen Y.
        • Charlifue S.
        • Heinemann A.W.
        Trajectories of life satisfaction after spinal cord injury.
        Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2016; 97: 1706-1713.e1701
        • Go A.S.
        • Mozaffarian D.
        • Roger V.L.
        • et al.
        Heart disease and stroke statistics--2013 update: a report from the American Heart Association.
        Circulation. 2013; 127: e6-245
        • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
        Stroke Facts. September 6, 2017.
        (Available at:)
        Date accessed: December 4, 2019
        • Benjamin E.J.
        • Blaha M.J.
        • Chiuve S.E.
        • et al.
        Heart disease and stroke statistics-2017 update: a report from the American Heart Association.
        Circulation. 2017; 135: e146-603
        • Hall M.J.
        • Levant S.
        • DeFrances C.J.
        Hospitalization for stroke in U.S. hospitals, 1989-2009.
        NCHS Data Brief, 2012: 1-8
        • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
        TBI-related emergency department visits, hospitalizations, and deaths (EDHDs).
        2019 (Available at: Accessed December 5, 2019)
        • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
        TBI: get the facts. March 11, 2019.
        (Available at:)
        • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
        Report to Congress on mild traumatic brain injury in the United States: steps to prevent a serious public health problem.
        (Available at:)
        Date: September 2003
        Date accessed: December 5, 2019