Focus on Risk Factors for Cardiometabolic Disease in Cerebral Palsy: Toward a Core Set of Outcome Measurement Instruments

      Abstract

      Objective

      To identify existing outcome measurement instruments (OMIs) assessing risk factors for cardiometabolic disease in adolescents and adults with cerebral palsy (CP) reported on in the literature or used in the field.

      Data Sources

      The COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement Instruments database of systematic reviews and 4 electronic databases (Embase, MEDLINE/Ovid, MEDLINE/Pubmed, PsychINFO) were searched up to June 19, 2017, that yielded 2594 articles. Experts in the field were consulted to identify any additional OMIs.

      Study Selection

      Two reviewers independently applied inclusion criteria to select eligible studies using or evaluating measurement properties of OMIs assessing 1 of 8 outcomes: cardiorespiratory endurance, body size, body composition, physical behavior, sleep, nutrition, blood pressure, and blood lipids and glucose. Studies with an experimental or observational design including ≥10 adolescents or adults with CP were included.

      Data Extraction

      One reviewer extracted data that were summarized for study and sample characteristics, outcomes, OMIs used, and if applicable data on measurement properties. Two reviewers rated the methodological quality and the quality of the OMIs. Feasibility for clinical practice and research was rated by experts in the field.

      Data Synthesis

      Ninety OMIs were identified from 56 included articles and by the experts. Seventy OMIs pertained to cardiorespiratory endurance, body size, body composition, and physical behavior, whereas only 5 were identified for sleep and nutrition. Overall synthesis revealed that there is moderate to poor evidence for good quality of OMIs in this population. Based on feasibility for clinical practice, experts agreed on a single OMI per outcome (and 2 for cardiorespiratory endurance) to be included in a core set.

      Conclusion

      Despite the range of available OMIs to assess risk factors for cardiometabolic disease in adolescents and adults with CP, evidence of good quality is often lacking. Nonetheless, a preliminary core set of 9 OMIs was systematically developed.

      Keywords

      List of abbreviations:

      CDE ( Common Data Element), COSMIN ( Consensus-based Standards for the Selection of Health Measurement Instruments), CP ( cerebral palsy), FFQ ( Food Frequency Questionnaire), GMFCS ( Gross Motor Function Classification System), OMI ( outcome measurement instrument), PSQI ( Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index), RCT ( randomized controlled trial)
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