Original research| Volume 100, ISSUE 12, P2334-2345, December 2019

Health-Related Problems and Changes After 1 Year as Assessed With the Geriatric ICF Core Set (GeriatrICS) in Community-Living Older Adults Who Are Frail Receiving Person-Centered and Integrated Care From Embrace

Published:April 12, 2019DOI:



      To assess the prevalence, severity, and change in health-related problems in a sample of older adults who received individual care and support from Embrace, for the whole sample, per subgroup based on complexity of care needs and frailty, and for those who had at baseline a health-related problem.


      A pretest-posttest study with assessments at baseline and after 12 months.




      Older adults aged 75 years and older (N=136) who are frail (n=56) or who have complex care needs (n=80).


      Participants received care and support by Embrace, a person-centered and integrated care service for community-living older adults supporting them to age in place. A multidisciplinary team provided care and support, with intensity depending on the older adults' risk profile.

      Main Outcome Measure

      Health-related problems as perceived by older adults and measured with the Geriatric International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health Core Set.


      Health-related problems were related to 6 coherent clusters: (1) Mental Functions; (2) Physical Health; (3) Mobility; (4) Personal Care; (5) Nutrition; and (6) Support. The most prevalent and most severe problems at baseline were related to Mental Functions and Mobility. Changes in the prevalence of problems after 12 months varied. Severity scores decreased or remained stable, except for Mobility items which showed a varying changing pattern in participants with complex care needs. Prevalence and severity of problems for those with a problem at baseline decreased after 12 months. Frail participants with a problem had higher baseline severity scores than those with complex care needs experiencing a problem, but differences in changes between individuals who are frail and those with complex care needs were small.


      The results are encouraging and may indicate that individual, person-centered and integrated care and support from Embrace offers a route to counteracting the decline in physical, cognitive and social functioning associated with aging.


      List of abbreviations:

      GeriatrICS (Geriatric International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health Core Set), GFI (Groningen Frailty Indicator), ICF (International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health), Intermed-E-SA (Intermed for the Elderly Self-Assessment)
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