Original research| Volume 100, ISSUE 4, SUPPLEMENT , S58-S64, April 2019

Sociocultural Factors Influencing Caregiver Appraisals Following Traumatic Brain Injury

Published:October 23, 2018DOI:



      To investigate the association of the sociocultural variables race/ethnicity, education, and poverty level to caregivers’ positive and negative appraisals following traumatic brain injury.






      Caregivers (N=344; 216 white; 69 black; 39 Hispanic) of persons with complicated mild to severe TBI at least 1-year postinjury.


      Not applicable.

      Main Outcome Measures

      Modified Caregiver Appraisal Scale (M-CAS); Zarit Burden Interview (ZBI).


      Black caregivers reported lower levels of perceived burden on both the M-CAS and the ZBI. Black and Hispanic caregivers reported more traditional caregiver ideology (caregiving as a responsibility) than did whites. Greater poverty was associated with higher burden on the M-CAS, lower caregiver satisfaction, and less mastery. Higher education was associated with higher burden on the ZBI and with lower caregiver mastery.


      Treatment professionals should be culturally sensitive to the different perspectives that caregivers may have based on sociocultural factors. Sociocultural factors should be considered in research investigating caregiver outcomes, including appraisals.


      List of abbreviations:

      CAS (Caregiver Appraisal Scale), M-CAS (Modified Caregiver Appraisal Scale), TBI (traumatic brain injury), VFI (variance inflation factor), ZBI (Zarit Burden Interview)
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