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Employment Stability in the First 5 Years After Moderate-to-Severe Traumatic Brain Injury

      Abstract

      Objective

      To characterize employment stability and identify predictive factors of employment stability in working-age individuals after moderate-to-severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) that may be clinically addressed.

      Design

      Longitudinal observational study of an inception cohort from the Traumatic Brain Injury Model Systems National Database (TBIMS-NDB) using data at years 1, 2, and 5 post-TBI.

      Setting

      Inpatient rehabilitation centers with telephone follow-up.

      Participants

      Individuals enrolled in the TBIMS-NDB since 2001, aged 18-59, with employment data at 2 or more follow-up interviews at years 1, 2, and 5 (N=5683).

      Interventions

      Not applicable.

      Main Outcome Measure

      Employment stability, categorized using post-TBI employment data as no paid employment (53.25%), stably (27.20%), delayed (10.24%), or unstably (9.31%) employed.

      Results

      Multinomial regression analyses identified predictive factors of employment stability, including younger age, white race, less severe injuries, preinjury employment, higher annual earnings, male sex, higher education, transportation independence postinjury, and no anxiety or depression at 1 year post-TBI.

      Conclusions

      Employment stability serves as an important measure of productivity post-TBI. Psychosocial, clinical, environmental, and demographic factors predict employment stability post-TBI. Notable predictors include transportation independence as well as the presence of anxiety and depression at year 1 post-TBI as potentially modifiable intervention targets.

      Keywords

      List of abbreviations:

      CVLT-II (California Verbal Learning Test II), O-LOG (Orientation Log), PTA (posttraumatic amnesia), RRR (relative risk ratio), TBI (traumatic brain injury), TBIMS-NDB (Traumatic Brain Injury Model Systems National Database), TMT (Trail Making Test)
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