Original research| Volume 99, ISSUE 12, P2513-2522, December 2018

The Adult Assisting Hand Assessment Stroke: Psychometric Properties of an Observation-Based Bimanual Upper Limb Performance Measurement



      To investigate interrater and intrarater reliability, measurement error, and convergent and discriminative validity of the Adult Assisting Hand Assessment Stroke (Ad-AHA Stroke).


      Cross-sectional observational study.


      A total of 7 stroke rehabilitation centers.


      Stroke survivors (reliability sample: n=30; validity sample: N=118) were included (median age 67y; interquartile range [IQR], 59-76); median time poststroke 81 days (IQR 57-117).



      Main Outcome Measures

      Ad-AHA Stroke, Action Research Arm Test (ARAT), upper extremity Fugl-Meyer Assessment (UE-FMA). The Ad-AHA Stroke is an observation-based instrument assessing the effectiveness of the spontaneous use of the affected hand when performing bimanual activities in adults poststroke. Reliability of Ad-AHA Stroke was examined using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs), Bland–Altman plots, and weighted kappa statistics for reliability on item level. SEM was calculated based on Ad-AHA units. Convergent validity was assessed by calculating Spearman rank correlation coefficients between Ad-AHA Stroke and ARA test and UE-FMA. Comparison of Ad-AHA Stroke scores between subgroups of patients according to hand dominance, neglect, and age evaluated discriminative validity.


      Intrarater and interrater agreement showed an ICC of 0.99 (95% confidence interval, 0.99-0.99), an SEM of 2.15 and 1.64 out of 100, respectively, and weighted kappa for item scores were all above 0.79. The relation between Ad-AHA and other clinical assessments was strong (ρ=0.9). Patients with neglect had significantly lower Ad-AHA scores compared to patients without neglect (P=.004).


      The Ad-AHA Stroke captures actual bimanual performance. Therefore, it provides an additional aspect of upper limb assessment with good to excellent reliability and low SEM for patients with subacute stroke. High convergent validity with the ARA test and UE-FMA and discriminative validity were supported.


      List of abbreviations:

      Ad-AHA Stroke (Adult Assisting Hand Assessment Stroke), AHA (Assisting Hand Assessment), ARAT (Action Research Arm Test), CI (confidence interval), ICC (intraclass correlation coefficient), IQR (interquartile range), Kids-AHA (Kids Assisting Hand Assessment), UE-FMA (upper extremity Fugl-Meyer Assessment)
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