Review article (meta-analysis)| Volume 99, ISSUE 11, P2355-2364, November 2018

A Systematic Review With Meta-Analysis of Mindful Exercises on Rehabilitative Outcomes Among Poststroke Patients



      To critically evaluate the rehabilitative effects of mindful exercises for poststroke patients.

      Data Sources

      Six databases (PubMed, Physiotherapy Evidence Database, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, Wanfang, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure) and reference lists of relevant articles were searched.

      Study Selection

      Randomized controlled trials on the effects of mindful exercises on rehabilitative outcomes such as sensorimotor function, gait speed, leg strength, aerobic endurance, cognitive function, and overall motor function.

      Data Extraction

      Two investigators independently screened eligible studies according to the eligible criteria, extracted data, and assessed risk of bias.

      Data Synthesis

      A total of 20 studies that satisfied the eligibility criteria were finally included. The sum scores of 5-9 points in the adapted Physiotherapy Evidence Database scale indicates low-to-medium risk of bias. The study results of meta-analysis indicate that mindful exercise intervention was significantly associated with improved sensorimotor function on both lower limb (standardized mean difference=0.79; 95% confidence interval, 0.43-1.15; P<.001; I2=62.67%) and upper limb (standardized mean difference=0.7; 95% confidence interval, 0.39-1.01; P<.001; I2=32.36%).


      This review suggests that mindful exercises are effective in improving sensorimotor function of lower and upper limbs in poststroke patients. The effects on gait speed, leg strength, aerobic endurance, overall motor function, and other outcomes (eg, cognitive function, gait parameters) require further investigation for allowing evidence-based conclusions.


      List of abbreviations:

      CI (confidence interval), FMA (Fugl-Meyer assessment), RCT (randomized controlled trial), SMD (standardized mean difference)
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