Original research| Volume 99, ISSUE 11, P2238-2243, November 2018

Tracking Changes in Participation With Participation Measurement Scale in Community-Dwelling Stroke Survivors in Africa

  • Oyéné Kossi
    Systems and Cognitive Neuroscience Division, Institute of Neuroscience, Catholic University of Louvain, Brussels, Belgium

    Unit of Neurology, University Hospital of Parakou, Parakou, Benin
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  • Jean-Louis Thonnard
    Corresponding author Jean-Louis Thonnard, PhD, Systems and Cognitive Neuroscience Division, Institute of Neuroscience, Catholic University of Louvain, Institute of Neuroscience, Avenue Mounier 53 bte 5375, Brussels 1200, Belgium.
    Systems and Cognitive Neuroscience Division, Institute of Neuroscience, Catholic University of Louvain, Brussels, Belgium

    Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine Department, University Hospital Saint-Luc, Brussels, Belgium
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Published:April 27, 2018DOI:



      To investigate responsiveness of the Participation Measurement Scale (PM-Scale) for the measurement of participation of stroke survivors.


      A 6-month observational study with 3 evaluation time points. Responsiveness of the PM-Scale was investigated over a period of 6 months.


      Rehabilitation centers.


      Stroke survivors (N =64); mean age ± SD, 56.9±12.6 years; sex, 45 men (70%).


      Not applicable.

      Main Outcome Measures

      Participants were evaluated using the PM-Scale. The modified Rankin Scale was used to categorize the overall disability level for each participant.


      The mixed-effect model analysis showed a significant difference in the participation over time (χ2=35.04; df=2; P<.001). In addition, the model exhibited significant effects of the sex, age, and disability at enrollment on the subjects’ participation levels. Furthermore, the PM-Scale detected different levels of changes in the entire cohort over time (small change, effect size [ES]=0.33; moderate change, ES=0.67; and large change, ES=1). The PM-Scale also facilitated the classification of the participants into discriminative categories such as important improvement (t score≥1.96; 1.8≤ES≤2.13), moderate improvement (0<t score<1.96; 0.56≤ES≤0.78), no change (t score=0), moderate decrease (−1.96<t score<0; ES=0.67), and important decrease (t score≤−1.96; ES=1.47).


      The PM-Scale exhibited good responsiveness and accurately detected changes in stroke subjects’ involvement in life situations. These results validate the usefulness of the PM-Scale for clinical trials and in settings to evaluate the effects of interventions on subjects with stroke in Africa.


      List of abbreviations:

      ES (effect size), mRS (modified Rankin Scale), PM-Scale (Participation Measurement Scale)
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