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Clinical Assessment of Spasticity in People With Spinal Cord Damage: Recommendations From the Ability Network, an International Initiative

Published:February 09, 2018DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apmr.2018.01.018

      Abstract

      A thorough assessment of the extent and severity of spasticity, and its effect on functioning, is central to the effective management of spasticity in persons with spinal cord damage (SCD). These individuals however do not always receive adequate assessment of their spasticity. Inadequate assessment compromises management when the effect of spasticity and/or need for intervention are not fully recognized. Assessment is also central to determining treatment efficacy. A barrier to spasticity assessment has been the lack of consensus on clinical and functional measures suitable for routine clinical practice. To extend on existing work, a working group of the Ability Network identified and consolidated information on possible measures, and then synthesized and formulated findings into practical recommendations for assessing spasticity and its effect on function in persons with SCD. Sixteen clinical and functional measures that have been used for this purpose were identified using a targeted literature review. These were mapped to the relevant domains of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health to assess the breadth of their coverage; coverage of many domains was found to be lacking, suggesting a focus for future work. The advantages, disadvantages, and usefulness of the measures were assessed using a range of criteria, with a focus on usefulness and feasibility in routine clinical practice. Based on this evaluation, a selection of measures suitable for initial and follow-up assessments are recommended. The recommendations are intended to have broad applicability to a variety of health care settings where people with SCD are managed.

      Keywords

      List of abbreviations:

      ICF (International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health), PROM (patient-reported outcome measure), SCATS (Spinal Cord Assessment Tool for Spastic Reflexes), SCD (spinal cord damage), SCIM (Spinal Cord Independence Measure), WISCI (Walking Index for Spinal Cord Injury)
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