Original research| Volume 99, ISSUE 5, P826-833, May 2018

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The Effects of Functional Training, Bicycle Exercise, and Exergaming on Walking Capacity of Elderly Patients With Parkinson Disease: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Single-blinded Trial

Published:January 11, 2018DOI:



      To compare the effects of functional training, bicycle exercise, and exergaming on walking capacity of elderly with Parkinson disease (PD).


      A pilot randomized, controlled, single-blinded trial.


      A state reference health care center for elderly, a public reference outpatient clinic for the elderly.


      Elderly individuals (≥60 years of age; N=62) with idiopathic PD (stage 2 to 3 of modified Hoehn and Yahr staging scale) according to the London Brain Bank.


      The participants were randomly assigned to three groups. Group 1 (G1) participated in functional training (n=22); group 2 (G2) performed bicycle exercise (n=20), and group 3 (G3) trained with Kinect Adventures (Microsoft, Redmond, WA) exergames (n=20).

      Main Outcome Measures

      The primary outcome measure was the 6-minute walk test (6MWT); secondary outcome measures were the 10-m walk test (10MWT), sitting-rising test (SRT), body mass index, Parkinson Disease Questionnaire-39, World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0 (WHODAS 2.0), and 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale.


      All groups showed significant improvements in 6MWT (G1 P=.008; G2 P=.001; G3 P=.005), SRT (G1 P<.001; G2 P=.001; G3 P=.003), and WHODAS 2.0 (G1 P=.018; G2 P=.019; G3 P=.041). Only G3 improved gait speed in 10MWT (P=.11). G1 (P=.014) and G3 (P=.004) improved quality of life. No difference was found between groups.


      Eight weeks of exergaming can improve the walking capacity of elderly patients with PD. Exergame training had similar outcomes compared with functional training and bicycle exercise. The three physical exercise modalities presented significant improvements on walking capacity, ability to stand up and sit, and functionality of the participants.


      List of abbreviations:

      PD (Parkinson disease), 6MWT (6-minute walk test), 10MWT (10-m walk test), SRT (sitting-rising test), WHODAS 2.0 (World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0), PDQ-39 (Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire-39)
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