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Longitudinal Examination of Resilience After Traumatic Brain Injury: A Traumatic Brain Injury Model Systems Study

      Abstract

      Objectives

      To evaluate (1) the trajectory of resilience during the first year after a moderate-severe traumatic brain injury (TBI); (2) factors associated with resilience at 3, 6, and 12 months postinjury; and (3) changing relationships over time between resilience and other factors.

      Design

      Longitudinal analysis of an observational cohort.

      Setting

      Five inpatient rehabilitation centers.

      Participants

      Patients with TBI (N=195) enrolled in the resilience module of the TBI Model Systems study with data collected at 3-, 6-, and 12-month follow-up.

      Interventions

      Not applicable.

      Main Outcome Measure

      Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale.

      Results

      Initially, resilience levels appeared to be stable during the first year postinjury. Individual growth curve models were used to examine resilience over time in relation to demographic, psychosocial, and injury characteristics. After adjusting for these characteristics, resilience actually declined over time. Higher levels of resilience were related to nonminority status, absence of preinjury substance abuse, lower anxiety and disability level, and greater life satisfaction.

      Conclusions

      Resilience is a construct that is relevant to understanding brain injury outcomes and has potential value in planning clinical interventions.

      Keywords

      List of abbreviations:

      CD-RISC (Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale), DRS (Disability Rating Scale), GED (General Equivalency Diploma), HS (high school), mTBI (mild traumatic brain injury), PART-O (Participation Assessment with Recombined Tools–Objective), SWLS (Satisfaction With Life Scale), TBI (traumatic brain injury), TBIMS (Traumatic Brain Injury Model System)
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