Original research| Volume 98, ISSUE 8, P1622-1627, August 2017

Measuring Participation of Rehabilitation Patients: Test-Retest Reliability and Mode of Administration Concordance of the Participation Measure–3 Domains, 4 Dimensions (PM-3D4D)

  • Feng-Hang Chang
    Corresponding author Feng-Hang Chang, ScD, OTR/L, Graduate Institute of Injury Prevention and Control, College of Public Health, Taipei Medical University, 250 Wu-Hsing Street, Taipei 11031, Taiwan.
    Graduate Institute of Injury Prevention and Control, College of Public Health, and Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan
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Published:March 28, 2017DOI:



      To evaluate the test-retest reliability and the concordance between the interviewer-administered version and the self-administered version of a newly developed participation measure, Participation Measure–3 Domains, 4 Dimensions (PM-3D4D).


      Multicenter observational study.


      Outpatient rehabilitation programs.


      Rehabilitation outpatients (N=262) participated in the study, including those (n=202) who participated in the test-retest study and those (n=60) who participated in the 2 modes of the administration study.


      Not applicable.

      Main Outcome Measures

      The PM-3D4D includes 19 items measuring participation in productivity, social, and community domains across 4 dimensions: diversity of participation, frequency of participation, desire for change, and difficulty in participation.


      The test-retest reliability was good across domains and dimensions (intraclass correlation coefficients, .76–.96) as well as in neurological and nonneurological groups. The test-retest reliability was also mostly good at the item level. A high concordance was found between the 2 administration modes (intraclass correlation coefficients, 0.96–1.00).


      The study results lend support to the use of the PM-3D4D to reliably assess participation of rehabilitation patients. The high concordance between the 2 administration modes suggests the potential use of the instrument in population-based research.


      List of abbreviations:

      ICC (intraclass correlation coefficient), PM-3D4D (Participation Measure–3 Domains, 4 Dimensions)
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