Original research| Volume 98, ISSUE 11, P2174-2180, November 2017

Arm-Cranking Exercise Training Reduces Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 1 in People With Spinal Cord Injury

  • Masahiro Horiuchi
    Corresponding author Masahiro Horiuchi, PhD, Kami-yoshida 5597-1, Fuji-yoshida, Yamanashi 4030005, Japan.
    Division of Human Environmental Science, Mt. Fuji Research Institute, Fuji-yoshida-city, Yamanashi, Japan

    Northern Region of Life Long Sports Center, Hokusho University, Ebetsu-city, Hokkaido, Japan
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  • Koichi Okita
    Northern Region of Life Long Sports Center, Hokusho University, Ebetsu-city, Hokkaido, Japan

    Department of Sport Education, School of Life Long Sport, Hokusho University, Ebetsu-city, Hokkaido, Japan
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Published:March 09, 2017DOI:



      To investigate the effects of arm-cranking exercise training on plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) as a risk factor of deep vein thrombosis, along with general physical parameters such as muscle strength, aerobic capacity, and hemodynamics, in individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) and control subjects.


      Longitudinal study.


      Community-based supervised intervention.


      Participants (N=17) comprised individuals with SCI (n=9) who volunteered for this study, and able-bodied individuals (n=8) matched for age, height, and body mass index who were assessed at baseline only.


      The arm-cranking exercise program was performed for 10 weeks with 4 sessions per week. Sessions consisted of 2 sets of warmup (5min) and arm crank exercises (25min) with a 10-minute recovery at an intensity of 50% to 70% of heart rate reserve.

      Main Outcome Measures

      Body mass (BM), waist circumference (WC), aerobic capacity (peak oxygen consumption [Vo2peak]), PAI-1, blood pressure, glucose metabolism, and lipids.


      PAI-1, BM, WC, systolic blood pressure, and triglycerides (TG) decreased, and Vo2peak increased after training (P<.05, respectively). Spearman rank-order analysis revealed that changes in PAI-1 were related to changes in Vo2peak, BM, WC, TG, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that WC was the most sensitive factor for predicting changes in PAI-1 (P=.038).


      These results suggest that 10 weeks of arm-cranking exercise training for people with SCI may help to reduce the risk factors of cardiovascular disease. In addition, changes in abdominal fat may be related to changes in PAI-1 in the SCI population.


      List of abbreviations:

      AB (able-bodied), BM (body mass), CVD (cardiovascular disease), DVT (deep vein thrombosis), HDL-C (high-density lipoprotein cholesterol), HRR (heart rate reserve), PAI-1 (plasminogen activator inhibitor 1), SBP (systolic blood pressure), SCI (spinal cord injury), TG (triglycerides), Vo2peak (peak oxygen uptake), WC (waist circumference)
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