To investigate the effects of arm-cranking exercise training on plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) as a risk factor of deep vein thrombosis, along with general physical parameters such as muscle strength, aerobic capacity, and hemodynamics, in individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) and control subjects.
Community-based supervised intervention.
Participants (N=17) comprised individuals with SCI (n=9) who volunteered for this study, and able-bodied individuals (n=8) matched for age, height, and body mass index who were assessed at baseline only.
The arm-cranking exercise program was performed for 10 weeks with 4 sessions per week. Sessions consisted of 2 sets of warmup (5min) and arm crank exercises (25min) with a 10-minute recovery at an intensity of 50% to 70% of heart rate reserve.
Main Outcome Measures
Body mass (BM), waist circumference (WC), aerobic capacity (peak oxygen consumption [Vo2peak]), PAI-1, blood pressure, glucose metabolism, and lipids.
PAI-1, BM, WC, systolic blood pressure, and triglycerides (TG) decreased, and Vo2peak increased after training (P<.05, respectively). Spearman rank-order analysis revealed that changes in PAI-1 were related to changes in Vo2peak, BM, WC, TG, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that WC was the most sensitive factor for predicting changes in PAI-1 (P=.038).
These results suggest that 10 weeks of arm-cranking exercise training for people with SCI may help to reduce the risk factors of cardiovascular disease. In addition, changes in abdominal fat may be related to changes in PAI-1 in the SCI population.
List of abbreviations:AB (able-bodied), BM (body mass), CVD (cardiovascular disease), DVT (deep vein thrombosis), HDL-C (high-density lipoprotein cholesterol), HRR (heart rate reserve), PAI-1 (plasminogen activator inhibitor 1), SBP (systolic blood pressure), SCI (spinal cord injury), TG (triglycerides), Vo2peak (peak oxygen uptake), WC (waist circumference)
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Published online: March 09, 2017
Supported by the Japan Society for the Promotion of the Science (grant no. 16700497), and in part by a grant of MEXT-Supported Program for the Strategic Research Foundation at Private Universities, 2015-2017 and a Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, KAKENHI (grant no.15KO1625).
© 2017 by the American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine