- •Of patients with type 1 diabetes for ≥45 years, 59% had frozen shoulder, with 73% affected bilaterally.
- •Patients with painful frozen shoulder had highest disability and least shoulder mobility.
- •High glycemic index was associated with severe disability and restricted shoulder mobility.
Main Outcome Measure
List of abbreviations:AGE (advanced glycation end-product), CI (confidence interval), DASH (Disabilities of Arm, Shoulder and Hand), HbA1c (glycated hemoglobin A1c)
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Supported by Sophies Minde Ortopedi AS, Oslo, Norway (grant no. 19/2014); Oslo Diabetes Research Center, Oslo, Norway; and The Norwegian Diabetics Center, Oslo, Norway.