Osteoarthritis (OA) is a common articular conditions among adults ≥60 years of age, with OA of the knee and hip resulting in significant chronic disability.1
The economic effect of OA is high as a consequence of lost productivity at work, the cost of treatment, and the frequent need for patients to adapt their lives and environment because of the disease.2
Because joint pain is a primary symptom of OA, it is important for clinicians to monitor the occurrence and intensity of joint pain in patients with OA. The Measure of Intermittent and Constant Osteoarthritis Pain (ICOAP) is an 11-item patient-reported outcome measure that measures intermittent (6 items) and constant (5 items) pain among patients with OA. The assessment includes separate versions for the hip and knee joints. Items are scored using a 0 to 4 scale, with 0 representing no pain and 4 representing extreme pain.3
The ICOAP does not require any formal training, is free to use, and only requires the evaluation form and a writing utensil. Additionally, the ICOAP has been cross-culturally validated in >9 different languages.4
The ICOAP demonstrates excellent test-retest reliability,3., 5.
internal consistency,3., 6.
and convergent validity with similar instruments that assess osteoarthritis pain.3
A Rasch analysis indicated the ICOAP is a unidimensional measure of pain.7
Grazio S, Balen D. [Obesity: risk factor and predictor of osteoarthritis] [Croatian]. Lijec Vjesn 2009;131:22-6.
Altman RD. Early management of osteoarthritis. Am J Manag Care 2010;16 Suppl Management:S41-7.
Hawker G, Davis A, French M, et al. Development and preliminary psychometric testing of a new OA pain measure – an OARSI/OMERACT initiative. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 2008;16:409-14.
Maillefert J, Kloppenburg M, Fernandes L, et al. Multi-language translation and cross-cultural adaptation of the OARSI/OMERACT measure of intermittent and constant osteoarthritis pain (ICOAP). Osteoarthritis Cartilage 2009;17:1293-6.
Singh JA, Luo R, Landon GC, Suarez-Almazor M. Reliability and clinically important improvement thresholds for osteoarthritis pain and function scales: a multicenter study. J Rheumatol 2014;41:509-15.
Manolarakis GE, Kontodimopoulos N, Sifaki-Pistolla D, Niakas D. Establishing the psychometric properties of the ICOAP questionnaire through intra-articular treatment of osteoarthritic pain: implementation for the Greek version. Arthritis 2016;2016:1-11.
Moreton B, Wheeler M, Walsh D, Lincoln N. Rasch analysis of the intermittent and constant osteoarthritis pain (ICOAP) scale. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 2012;20:1109-15.
Gonçalves R, Meireles A, Gil J, Cavalheiro L, Rosado J, Cabri J. Responsiveness of intermittent and constant osteoarthritis pain (ICOAP) after physical therapy for knee osteoarthritis. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 2012;20:1116-9.
Hawker GA, Mian S, Kendzerska T, French M. Measures of adult pain: Visual Analog Scale for Pain (VAS Pain), Numeric Rating Scale for Pain (NRS Pain), McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ), Short-Form McGill Pain Questionnaire (SF-MPQ), Chronic Pain Grade Scale (CPGS), Short Form-36 Bodily Pain Scale (SF-36), and Measure of Intermittent and Constant Osteoarthritis Pain (ICOAP). Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken) 2011;63 Suppl 11:S240-52.
Hawker GA, Stewart L, French MR, et al. Understanding the pain experience in hip and knee osteoarthritis--an OARSI/OMERACT initiative. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 2008;16:415-22.
This abbreviated summary provides a review of the psychometric properties of the ICOAP in people with hip and knee joint OA. A full review of the ICOAP and reviews of nearly 375 other instruments for patients with various health conditions can be found at www.rehabmeasures.org
This instrument summary is designed to facilitate the selection of outcome measures by trained clinicians. The information contained in this summary represents a sample of the peer-reviewed research available at the time of this summary's publication. The information contained in this summary does not constitute an endorsement of this instrument for clinical practice. The views expressed are those of the summary authors and do not represent those of authors' employers, instrument owner(s), the Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, the Rehabilitation Measures Database, or the U.S. Department of Education. The information contained in this summary has not been reviewed externally.
The Rehabilitation Measures Database and Instrument Summary Tear-sheets are funded by the National Institute on Disability, Independent Living, and Rehabilitation Research, U.S. Department of Education through the Rehabilitation Research and Training Center on Improving Measurement of Medical Rehabilitation Outcomes (grant no. H133B090024).
Published online: March 30, 2017
Highlights From the Rehabilitation Measures Database
This content is provided as a service by the American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine and is not peer reviewed by the Archives.
© 2017 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.