Construct Validity of the Prosthetic Limb Users Survey of Mobility (PLUS-M) in Adults With Lower Limb Amputation

Published:August 30, 2016DOI:



      To assess construct validity of the Prosthetic Limb Users Survey of Mobility (PLUS-M), a self-report mobility measure for people with lower limb amputation (LLA).


      Cross-sectional study.


      Private prosthetic clinics (n=37).


      Current lower limb prosthesis users (N=199; mean age ± SD, 55.4±14.3y; 71.4% men) were assessed before receiving a replacement prosthesis, prosthetic socket, and/or prosthetic knee.


      Not applicable.

      Main Outcome Measures

      Convergent construct validity was examined using correlations between participants' PLUS-M T-scores and measures of physical function, mobility, and balance, including the Amputee Mobility Predictor (AMP), timed Up and Go (TUG), Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System–Physical Function (PROMIS-PF), Prosthesis Evaluation Questionnaire–Mobility Subscale (PEQ-MS), and Activities-specific Balance Confidence (ABC) Scale. Known-groups construct validity was evaluated by comparing differences in PLUS-M T-scores among participants grouped by Medicare Functional Classification Level (MFCL).


      PLUS-M T-scores demonstrated a moderate positive relationship with AMP scores (ρ=.54, P<.001) and a moderate negative relationship with TUG times (ρ=−.56, P<.001). The PLUS-M also showed a strong positive relationship with PEQ-MS scores (ρ=.78, P<.001), ABC Scale scores (ρ=.81, P<.001), and PROMIS-PF T-scores (ρ=.81, P<.001). Significant differences (P<.05) in PLUS-M T-scores were found among groups of people classified by different MFCLs.


      Study results support the validity of the PLUS-M as a self-report measure of prosthetic mobility. Correlations between PLUS-M and measures of physical function, mobility, and balance indicate convergent construct validity. Similarly, significant differences in PLUS-M T-scores across MFCL groups provide evidence of known-groups construct validity. In summary, evidence indicates that PLUS-M has good construct validity among people with LLA.


      List of abbreviations:

      ABC (Activities-specific Balance Confidence), AMP (Amputee Mobility Predictor), LLA (lower limb amputation), MFCL (Medicare Functional Classification Level), PEQ-MS (Prosthesis Evaluation Questionnaire–Mobility Subscale), PLUS-M (Prosthetic Limb Users Survey of Mobility), PROMIS (Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System), PROMIS-PF (Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System–Physical Function), TUG (timed Up and Go)
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