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Reexamining the Validity and Dimensionality of the Moorong Self-Efficacy Scale: Improving Its Clinical Utility

  • James W. Middleton
    Correspondence
    Corresponding author James W. Middleton, MBBS, PhD, John Walsh Center for Rehabilitation Research, Level 12, Kolling Institute of Medical Research, Royal North Shore Hospital, St Leonards, NSW 2065, Australia.
    Affiliations
    John Walsh Center for Rehabilitation Research, Kolling Institute, Northern Sydney Local Health District, St Leonards; and Sydney Medical School Northern, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia
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  • Yvonne Tran
    Affiliations
    John Walsh Center for Rehabilitation Research, Kolling Institute, Northern Sydney Local Health District, St Leonards; and Sydney Medical School Northern, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia
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  • Charles Lo
    Affiliations
    John Walsh Center for Rehabilitation Research, Kolling Institute, Northern Sydney Local Health District, St Leonards; and Sydney Medical School Northern, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia
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  • Ashley Craig
    Affiliations
    John Walsh Center for Rehabilitation Research, Kolling Institute, Northern Sydney Local Health District, St Leonards; and Sydney Medical School Northern, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia
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      Abstract

      Objective

      To improve the clinical utility of the Moorong Self-Efficacy Scale (MSES) by reexamining its factor structure and comparing its performance against a measure of general self-efficacy in persons with spinal cord injury (SCI).

      Design

      Cross-sectional survey design.

      Setting

      Community.

      Participants

      Adults with SCI (N=161; 118 men and 43 women) recruited from Australia (n=82) and the United States (n=79), including 86 with paraplegia and 75 with tetraplegia.

      Interventions

      None.

      Main Outcome Measures

      Confirmatory factor analysis deriving fit indices on reported 1-, 2-, and 3-factor structures for the MSES. Exploratory factor analysis of MSES using principal component analysis with promax oblique rotation and structure validation, with correlations and multiple regression using cross-sectional data from the Sherer General Self-Efficacy Scale and Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36).

      Results

      The MSES was confirmed to have a 3-factor structure, explaining 61% of variance. Two of the factors, labeled social function self-efficacy and personal function self-efficacy, were SCI condition–specific, whereas the other factor (accounting for 9.7% of variance) represented general self-efficacy, correlating most strongly with the Sherer General Self-Efficacy Scale. Correlations and multiple regression analyses between MSES factors, Sherer General Self-Efficacy Scale total score, SF-36 Physical and Mental Component Summary scores, and SF-36 domain scores support validity of this MSES factor structure. No significant cross-cultural differences existed between Australia and the United States in total MSES or factor scores.

      Conclusions

      The findings support a 3-factor structure encompassing general and SCI domain–specific self-efficacy beliefs and better position the MSES to assist SCI rehabilitation assessment, planning, and research.

      Keywords

      List of abbreviations:

      GSE (generalized self-efficacy), MSES (Moorong Self-Efficacy Scale), QOL (quality of life), RMSEA (root mean square error of approximation), SCI (spinal cord injury), SF-36 (Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey)
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