Original research| Volume 97, ISSUE 9, P1515-1519, September 2016

Validation of a Reading Assessment for Persons With Homonymous Hemianopia or Quadrantanopia

Published:March 17, 2016DOI:



      To preliminarily validate the Visual Skills for Reading Test (VSRT) for assessing reading performance in persons with homonymous hemianopia (HH) or quadrantanopia.


      Retrospective chart review.


      University-based outpatient low vision rehabilitation center.


      Persons (N=38) with HH or quadrantanopia who completed the VSRT.


      Validation procedures included testing for equivalence of the 3 test versions, estimation of internal consistency reliability, and known-group comparison using VSRT results from previous studies of adults with normal vision and central field loss.

      Main Outcome Measures

      Corrected reading rate, reading accuracy rate, type and number of reading errors, and completion time were recorded and evaluated.


      Cronbach α for the VSRT across all participants was .80, which indicated good internal consistency. A known-group comparison showed that persons with a visual field deficit read significantly slower than did normally sighted adults (t580=10.13; P<.0001). Persons with quadrantanopia read significantly faster than did persons with HH (t36=2.25; P=.03) or those with central field loss (t48=3.17; P=.0027). These findings confirmed that the VSRT correctly discriminated between groups in terms of reading performance.


      Preliminary validation results indicate that the VSRT demonstrates adequate evidence of reliability and validity to evaluate reading performance in adults with HH or quadrantanopia.


      List of abbreviations:

      HH (homonymous hemianopia), SEM (standard error of measurement), VSRT (Visual Skills for Reading Test)
      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'


      Subscribe to Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect


        • Kline L.B.
        Visual fields.
        in: Kline L.B. Neuro-ophthalmology review manual. Slack Inc, Thorofare2008: 1-44
        • Zhang X.
        • Kedar S.
        • Lynn M.
        • Newman N.
        • Biousse V.
        Natural history of homonymous hemianopsia.
        Neurology. 2006; 66: 906-910
        • Schuett S.
        • Heywood C.
        • Kentridge R.
        • Zihl J.
        The significance of visual information processing in reading: insights from hemianopic dyslexia.
        Neuropsychologia. 2008; 46: 2445-2462
        • Zihl J.
        Rehabilitation of visual disorders after brain injury.
        2nd ed. Psychology Pr, Hove2011
      1. Warren M. Barstow E. Occupational therapy interventions for adults with low vision. American Occupational Therapy Association, Bethesda2011
        • Baldasare J.
        • Watson G.
        • Whittaker S.
        • Miller-Shaffer H.
        The development and evaluation of a reading test for low vision individuals with macular loss.
        J Vis Impair Blind. 1986; 80: 785-789
        • Watson G.
        • Whittaker S.
        • Steciw M.
        Manual for the visual skills for reading test.
        3rd ed. Zonules Production LLC, Madison2010
        • Stelmack J.
        • Stelmack T.
        • Fraim M.
        • Warrington J.
        Clinical use of the Pepper Visual Skills for Reading Test in low vision rehabilitation.
        Am J Optom Physiol Opt. 1987; 64: 829-831
        • Lott L.
        • Schneck M.
        • Haegerstrom-Portney G.
        • Brabyn J.
        • Gildengorin G.
        • West C.
        Reading performance in older adults with good acuity.
        Optom Vis Sci. 2001; 78: 316-324
        • Warren M.
        Intervention for adults with vision impairment from acquired brain injury.
        in: Warren M. Barstow E. Occupational therapy interventions for adults with low vision. American Occupational Therapy Association, Bethesda2011: 403-448
        • Watson G.
        • Baldasare J.
        • Whittaker S.
        Validity and clinical uses of the Pepper Visual Skills for Reading Test.
        J Vis Impair Blind. 1990; 84: 119-123
        • Mennem T.
        • Warren M.
        • Yuen H.
        Preliminary validation of a vision-dependent activities of daily living instrument on adults with homonymous hemianopia.
        Am J Occup Ther. 2012; 66: 478-482
        • George D.
        • Mallery P.
        SPSS for Windows step by step: a simple guide and reference, 11.0 update.
        4th ed. Allyn & Bacon, Boston2003