The original Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) is a 14-item self-report measure designed
to assess the extent to which individuals judge their life circumstances as stressful.1
PSS items are not bound to a specific life event or clinical condition; therefore,
assessment of stress is broad, allowing for use in diverse populations and across
Respondents are asked to contemplate the past month and then indicate how often they
have felt that their lives are unpredictable or uncontrollable using a 5-point Likert-type
scale, with a response set ranging from 0 (never) to 4 (very often). Although the
PSS-14 has demonstrated adequate psychometric properties, 2 short-form versions have
also been developed: a 10-item version,2., 3.
derived from the 14-item scale using factor analysis techniques, and a 4-item version
for use in brief interview situations.1., 4.
Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses support a 2-factor structure, with the
first encompassing positive, coping-related questions and the second involving negatively
worded, stress-related questions.5
The PSS has shown to be a reliable and valid measure of perceived psychosocial stress,6
demonstrates adequate to excellent criterion and construct validity with similar
measures of life experience and stress,1
and has been used in a diverse range of clinical and nonclinical populations.2., 3., 4., 5., 6., 7., 8., 9., 10.
In addition, versions of the PSS have been translated and validated in more than