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Measurement Characteristics and Clinical Utility of the Spinal Cord Independence Measure-III Among Individuals With Spinal Cord Injury

      The Spinal Cord Independence Measure–III (SCIM-III) was specifically developed for use in patients with spinal cord injuries to assess their ability to complete routine daily tasks and activities of daily living.
      • Catz A.
      • Itzkovich M.
      • Agranov E.
      • Ring H.
      • Tamir A.
      SCIM - Spinal Cord Independence Measure: a new disability scale for patients with spinal cord lesions.
      The SCIM-III is a clinician-rated instrument comprised of 19 items across 3 subscales: (1) self-care, (2) respiration and sphincter management, and (3) mobility, with items being weighted according to assumed clinical importance. The SCIM-III has shown to be a reliable and valid instrument for the functional evaluation of individuals with spinal cord injuries
      • Itzkovich M.
      • Gelernter I.
      • Biering-Sorensen F.
      • et al.
      The Spinal Cord Independence Measure (SCIM) Version III: reliability and validity in a multi-center international study.
      • Catz A.
      • Itzkovich M.
      • Tesio L.
      • et al.
      A multicenter international study on the Spinal Cord Independence Measure, version III: Rasch psychometric validation.
      • Anderson K.
      • Acuff M.
      • Arp B.
      • et al.
      United States (US) multi-center study to assess the validity and reliability of the Spinal Cord Independence Measure (SCIM-III).
      and has been endorsed by relevant stakeholders and outcomes assessment experts for use in clinical and research contexts.
      • Furlan J.
      • Noonan V.
      • Singh A.
      • Fehlings M.
      Assessment of disability in patients with acute traumatic spinal cord injury: a systematic review of the literature.
      • Anderson K.
      • Aito S.
      • Atkins M.
      • et al.
      Functional recovery measures for spinal cord injury: An evidence-based review for clinical practice and research.
      • Alexander M.
      • Anderson K.
      • Biering-Sorensen F.
      • et al.
      Outcome measures in spinal cord injury: recent assessments and recommendations for future directions.
      This measure has been shown to be responsive to functional change from admission to discharge and has demonstrated excellent concurrent validity with FIM scores.
      • Bluvshtein V.
      • Front L.
      • Itzkovich M.
      • et al.
      SCIM III is reliable and valid in a separate analysis for traumatic spinal cord lesions.
      Minimal detectable change and minimal important difference scores for the SCIM-III have been established,
      • Scivoletto G.
      • Tamburella F.
      • Laurenza L.
      • Molinari M.
      The Spinal Cord Independence Measure: how much change is clinically significant for spinal cord injury subjects.
      and expected scores for various neurologic levels in spinal cord injury have been reported.
      • Aidinoff E.
      • Front L.
      • Itzkovich M.
      • et al.
      Expected Spinal Cord Independence Measure, Third Version, scores for various neurological level after complete spinal cord lesions.
      Floor and ceiling effects have been noted across all 3 subscales; these effects have been shown to vary according to patients' American Spinal Injury Association motor neurologic grade.
      • Ackerman P.
      • Morrison S.
      • McDowell S.
      • Vazquez L.
      Using the Spinal Cord Independence Measure III to measure functional recovery in a post-acute spinal cord injury program.
      The SCIM-III has been translated and validated in multiple languages,
      • Aguilar-Rodriguez M.
      • Pena-Paches L.
      • Grao-Castellote C.
      • Torralba-Collados F.
      • Hervas-Marin D.
      • Giner-Pascual M.
      Adaptation and validation of the Spanish self-report version of the Spinal Cord Independence Measure (SCIM III).
      • Wannapakhe J.
      • Saensook W.
      • Keawjoho C.
      • Amatachaya S.
      Reliability and discriminative ability of the Spinal Cord Independence Measure III (Thai version).
      • Unalan H.
      • Misirlioglu T.
      • Erhan B.
      • et al.
      Validity and reliability study of the Turkish version of Spinal Cord Independence Measure-III.
      • Invernizzi M.
      • Carda S.
      • Milani P.
      • et al.
      Development and validation of the Italian version of the Spinal Cord Independence Measure III.
      and self-report
      • Fekete C.
      • Eriks-Hoogland I.
      • Baumberger M.
      • et al.
      Development and validation of a self-report version of the Spinal Cord Independence Measure (SCIM III).
      and youth
      • Mulcahey M.
      • Calhoun C.
      • Sinko R.
      • Kelly E.
      • Vogel L.
      The Spinal Cord Independence Measure (SCIM) - III self report for youth.
      versions have been developed.
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      References

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        Adaptation and validation of the Spanish self-report version of the Spinal Cord Independence Measure (SCIM III).
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        Validity and reliability study of the Turkish version of Spinal Cord Independence Measure-III.
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        The Spinal Cord Independence Measure (SCIM) - III self report for youth.
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