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Swimming Improves Pain and Functional Capacity of Patients With Fibromyalgia: A Randomized Controlled Trial

Published:February 20, 2016DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apmr.2016.01.026

      Abstract

      Objective

      To evaluate the effect of swimming on pain, functional capacity, aerobic capacity, and quality of life in patients with fibromyalgia (FM).

      Design

      Randomized controlled trial.

      Setting

      Rheumatology outpatient clinics of a university hospital.

      Participants

      Women with FM (N=75; age range, 18–60y) randomly assigned to a swimming group (SG) (n=39) or a walking group (WG) (n=36).

      Intervention

      The SG performed 50 minutes of swimming 3 times a week for 12 weeks, with a heart rate at 11 beats under the anaerobic threshold. The WG performed walking with a heart rate at the anaerobic threshold, with the same duration and frequency as the SG.

      Main Outcome Measures

      Participants were evaluated before the exercise protocols (t0), at 6 weeks (t6), and at 12 weeks (t12) after the onset of the protocols. The primary outcome measure was the visual analog scale for pain. The secondary measurements were the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire and the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey for quality of life; a spiroergometric test for cardiorespiratory variables; and the timed Up & Go test for functional performance.

      Results

      Patients in both groups experienced improvement in pain after the 12-week program, with no difference between groups (P=.658). The same results were found regarding functional capacity and quality of life. Moreover, no statistical difference between groups was found regarding aerobic capacity over time.

      Conclusions

      Swimming, like walking, is an effective method for reducing pain and improving both functional capacity and quality of life in patients with FM.

      Keywords

      List of abbreviations:

      FIQ (Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire), FM (fibromyalgia), SF-36 (Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey), SG (swimming group), VAS (visual analog scale), Vo2peak (peak oxygen consumption), WG (walking group)
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