Review article| Volume 97, ISSUE 7, P1182-1194, July 2016

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Patient-Reported Mobility: A Systematic Review

Published:February 17, 2016DOI:


      • Disability is more frequently assessed than functioning in mobility patient-reported outcomes.
      • Only a third of the mobility patient-reported outcomes are based on the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health.
      • The Outpatient Physical Therapy Improvement in Movement Assessment Log, the Movement Ability Measure, and the Mobility Activities Measure for Inpatient Rehabilitation Settings obtained the best scores in the critical appraisal.



      To identify the self-administered instruments to assess mobility in adults with disability, to link the mobility assessed by these instruments to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF), and to evaluate their methodological quality.

      Data Sources

      Scopus, Science Direct, and Web of Science were systematically searched up to July 2015.

      Study Selection

      Studies on the development and validation of self-administered questionnaires in which at least half of the items were related to movement or mobility were included.

      Data Extraction

      The mobility assessed by the instruments was classified according to the ICF categories. The methodological quality was assessed according to the Consensus-based Standards for the Selection of Health Measurement Instruments checklist.

      Data Synthesis

      Of 5791 articles, 34 studies were eligible for inclusion. Only 10 of the instruments contained items that exclusively assessed mobility. The most frequently linked ICF categories were “changing basic body position” (19.4%), “walking” (14.8%), and “moving around” (13.5%). Measurement properties evaluated included internal consistency (5 studies), reliability (5 studies), measurement error (1 study), content validity (9 studies), structural validity (4 studies), hypotheses testing (6 studies), and responsiveness (1 study). Only content validity obtained the highest quality, probably because the studies included in the review reported the development and initial validation of the instruments.


      Self-administered mobility questionnaires published in the scientific literature assess mobility activities rather than functions related to movement, and do so from the perspective of disability, frequently including self-care and domestic life as domains for assessment. The instruments that presented the highest methodological quality were the Outpatient Physical Therapy Improvement in Movement Assessment Log, the Movement Ability Measure, and the Mobility Activities Measure for Inpatient Rehabilitation Settings.


      List of abbreviations:

      ICF (International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health), MAM (Movement Ability Measure), Mobam-in (Mobility Activities Measure for Inpatient Rehabilitation Settings), OPTIMAL (Outpatient Physical Therapy Improvement in Movement Assessment Log), WHO (World Health Organization)
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      Linked Article

      • Criteria for Recommending a Patient Self-Report Functional Outcome
        Archives of Physical Medicine and RehabilitationVol. 98Issue 1
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          I am writing in response to the Pinto-Carral et al article “Patient-Reported Mobility: A Systematic Review.”1 Based on their results reported in tables 2 and 5, the authors recommended 3 instruments for clinical use (ie, Outpatient Physical Therapy Improvement in Movement Assessment Log [OPTIMAL], Mobility Activities Measure, Mobility Activities Measure for Inpatient Rehabilitation Settings).
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