Original research| Volume 97, ISSUE 5, P760-771, May 2016

Self-Care and Mobility Following Postacute Rehabilitation for Older Adults With Hip Fracture: A Multilevel Analysis

Published:January 30, 2016DOI:



      To examine contextual (facility and community) and individual factors associated with self-care and mobility outcomes among Medicare hip fracture patients receiving inpatient rehabilitation.


      Retrospective cohort study of 3 linked data files: Inpatient Rehabilitation Facility–Patient Assessment Instrument, Provider of Services, and Area Health Resources. Multilevel modeling was used to examine the effects of contextual and individual factors on self-care and mobility outcomes.


      Inpatient rehabilitation facilities (IRFs).


      Medicare hip fracture patients (N=35,264; mean age, 81y) treated in IRFs (N=1072) in 2012.


      Not applicable.

      Main Outcome Measures

      Self-care (eating, grooming, bathing, upper and lower body dressing, toileting) and mobility (walk/wheelchair, stairs) at discharge.


      Mean ± SD self-care and mobility scores at admission were 3.17±.87 and 1.24±.51, respectively; mean ± SD self-care and mobility scores at discharge were 5.03±1.09 and 3.31±1.54, respectively. Individual and contextual levels explained 44.4% and 21.6% of the variance in self-care at discharge, respectively, and 19.5% and 1.9% of the variance in mobility at discharge, respectively. At the individual level, age, race/ethnicity, cognitive and motor FIM scores at admission, and tier comorbidities explained variance in self-care and mobility; sex and length of stay explained variance only in self-care. At the contextual level, facilities' case mix (mean patient age, percent non-Hispanic white, mean self-care score at admission) and structural characteristics (rural location, freestanding, for-profit ownership) explained variance only in self-care; facilities' case mix (mean patient age, percent non-Hispanic white, percent living with social support, mean mobility score at admission) explained variance in mobility. Community variables were nonsignificant.


      Individual and facility factors were significant predictors of discharge self-care and mobility among Medicare hip fracture patients in IRFs. The findings may improve quality of IRF services to hip fracture patients and inform risk adjustment methods.


      List of abbreviations:

      CMS (Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services), ES (effect size), IRF (inpatient rehabilitation facility), IRF-PAI (Inpatient Rehabilitation Facility–Patient Assessment Instrument), LOS (length of stay), MLM (multilevel modeling)
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