Original research| Volume 97, ISSUE 5, P772-780, May 2016

Sex-Specific Predictors of Inpatient Rehabilitation Outcomes After Traumatic Brain Injury

Published:January 30, 2016DOI:



      To identify sex-specific predictors of inpatient rehabilitation outcomes among patients with a traumatic brain injury (TBI) from a population-based perspective.


      Retrospective cohort study.


      Inpatient rehabilitation.


      Patients in inpatient rehabilitation for a TBI within 1 year of acute care discharge between 2008/2009 and 2011/2012 (N=1730, 70% men, 30% women).



      Main Outcome Measures

      Inpatient rehabilitation length of stay, total FIM score, and motor and cognitive FIM ratings at discharge.


      Sex, as a covariate in multivariable linear regression models, was not a significant predictor of rehabilitation outcomes. Although many of the predictors examined were similar across men and women, sex-specific multivariable models identified some predictors of rehabilitation outcome that are specific for men and women; mechanism of injury (P<.0001) was a significant predictor of functional outcome only among women, whereas comorbidities (P<.0001) was a significant predictor for men only.


      Predictors of outcomes after inpatient rehabilitation differed by sex, providing evidence for a sex-specific approach in planning and resource allocation for inpatient rehabilitation services for patients with TBI.


      List of abbreviations:

      ADG (Aggregated Diagnosis Group), AIS (Abbreviated Injury Score), ALC (alternate level of care), DAD (Discharge Abstract Database), LOS (length of stay), MVC (motor vehicle collision), NRS (National Rehabilitation Reporting System), TBI (traumatic brain injury)
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