Advertisement

Word Memory Test Predicts Recovery in Claimants With Work-Related Head Injury

Published:January 06, 2016DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apmr.2015.12.019

      Abstract

      Objective

      To investigate the predictive validity of the Word Memory Test (WMT), a verbal memory neuropsychological test developed as a performance validity measure to assess memory, effort, and performance consistency.

      Design

      Cohort study with 1-year follow-up.

      Setting

      Workers' compensation rehabilitation facility.

      Participants

      Participants included workers' compensation claimants with work-related head injury (N=188; mean age, 44y; 161 men [85.6%]).

      Interventions

      Not applicable.

      Main Outcome Measures

      Outcome measures for determining predictive validity included days to suspension of wage replacement benefits during the 1-year follow-up and work status at discharge in claimants undergoing rehabilitation. Analysis included multivariable Cox and logistic regression.

      Results

      Better WMT performance was significantly but weakly correlated with younger age (r=−.30), documented brain abnormality (r=.28), and loss of consciousness at the time of injury (r=.25). Claimants with documented brain abnormalities on diagnostic imaging scans performed better (∼9%) on the WMT than those without brain abnormalities. The WMT predicted days receiving benefits (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.13; 95% confidence interval, 1.04–1.24) and work status outcome at program discharge (adjusted odds ratio, 1.62; 95% confidence interval, 1.13–2.34).

      Conclusions

      Our results provide evidence for the predictive validity of the WMT in workers' compensation claimants. Younger claimants and those with more severe brain injuries performed better on the WMT. It may be that financial incentives or other factors related to the compensation claim affected the performance.

      Keywords

      List of abbreviations:

      MTBI (mild traumatic brain injury), WCB (Workers' Compensation Board), WMT (Word Memory Test)
      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      References

        • Cassidy J.D.
        • Boyle E.
        • Carroll L.J.
        Population-based, inception cohort study of the incidence, course, and prognosis of mild traumatic brain injury after motor vehicle collisions.
        Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2014; 95: S278-S285
        • Kristman V.L.
        • Cote P.
        • Van Eerd D.
        • et al.
        Prevalence of lost-time claims for mild traumatic brain injury in the working population: improving estimates using workers compensation databases.
        Brain Inj. 2008; 22: 51-59
        • Carroll L.J.
        • Cassidy J.D.
        • Peloso P.M.
        • et al.
        Prognosis for mild traumatic brain injury: results of the WHO Collaborating Centre Task Force on Mild Traumatic Brain Injury.
        J Rehabil Med. 2004; 43: 84-105
        • Boyle E.
        • Cancelliere C.
        • Hartvigsen J.
        • Carroll L.J.
        • Holm L.W.
        • Cassidy J.D.
        Systematic review of prognosis after mild traumatic brain injury in the military: results of the International Collaboration on Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Prognosis.
        Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2014; 95: S230-S237
        • Carroll L.J.
        • Cassidy J.D.
        • Cancelliere C.
        • et al.
        Systematic review of the prognosis after mild traumatic brain injury in adults: cognitive, psychiatric, and mortality outcomes. Results of the International Collaboration on Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Prognosis.
        Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2014; 95: S152-S173
        • Kristman V.L.
        • Cote P.
        • Yang X.
        • Hogg-Johnson S.
        • Vidmar M.
        • Rezai M.
        Health care utilization of workers’ compensation claimants associated with mild traumatic brain injury: a historical population-based cohort study of workers injured in 1997-1998.
        Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2014; 95: S295-S302
        • Hartvigsen J.
        • Boyle E.
        • Cassidy J.D.
        • Carroll L.J.
        Mild traumatic brain injury after motor vehicle collisions: what are the symptoms and who treats them? A population-based 1-year inception cohort study.
        Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2014; 95: S286-S294
        • Sherer M.
        • Novack T.A.
        • Sander A.M.
        • Struchen M.A.
        • Alderson A.
        • Thompson R.N.
        Neuropsychological assessment and employment outcome after traumatic brain injury: a review.
        Clin Neuropsychol. 2002; 16: 157-178
        • Wong J.J.
        • Cote P.
        • Shearer H.M.
        • et al.
        Clinical practice guidelines for the management of conditions related to traffic collisions: a systematic review by the OPTIMa Collaboration.
        Disabil Rehabil. 2015; 37: 471-489
        • Rohling M.L.
        • Meyers J.E.
        • Millis S.R.
        Neuropsychological impairment following traumatic brain injury: a dose-response analysis.
        Clin Neuropsychol. 2003; 17: 289-302
        • Dikmen S.S.
        • Machamer J.E.
        • Winn H.R.
        • Temkin N.R.
        Neuropsychological outcome at 1-year post head injury.
        Neuropsychology. 1995; 9: 80-90
        • Millis S.R.
        Assessment of motivation and memory with the Recognition Memory Test after financially compensable mild head injury.
        J Clin Psychol. 1994; 50: 601-605
        • Green P.
        The pervasive influence of effort on neuropsychological tests.
        Phys Med Rehabil Clin N Am. 2007; 18 (vi): 43-68
        • Armistead-Jehle P.
        • Gervais R.O.
        • Green P.
        Memory Complaints Inventory results as a function of symptom validity test performance.
        Arch Clin Neuropsychol. 2012; 27: 101-113
        • Allen M.D.
        • Bigler E.D.
        • Larsen J.
        • Goodrich-Hunsaker N.J.
        • Hopkins R.O.
        Functional neuroimaging evidence for high cognitive effort on the Word Memory Test in the absence of external incentives.
        Brain Inj. 2007; 21: 1425-1428
        • Green P.
        • Flaro L.
        • Courtney J.
        Examining false positives on the Word Memory Test in adults with mild traumatic brain injury.
        Brain Inj. 2009; 23: 741-750
        • Green P.
        • Rohling M.L.
        • Lees-Haley P.R.
        • Allen III, L.M.
        Effort has a greater effect on test scores than severe brain injury in compensation claimants.
        Brain Inj. 2001; 15: 1045-1060
        • Green P.
        • Montijo J.
        • Brockhaus R.
        High specificity of the Word Memory Test and Medical Symptom Validity Test in groups with severe verbal memory impairment.
        Appl Neuropsychol. 2011; 18: 86-94
        • Carone D.A.
        • Green P.
        • Drane D.L.
        Word Memory Test profiles in two cases with surgical removal of the left anterior hippocampus and parahippocampal gyrus.
        Appl Neuropsychol Adult. 2014; 21: 155-160
        • Carone D.A.
        Children with moderate/severe brain damage/dysfunction outperform adults with mild-to-no brain damage on the Medical Symptom Validity Test.
        Brain Inj. 2008; 22: 960-971
        • Rose J.
        A model of care for managing traumatic psychological injury in a workers’ compensation context.
        J Trauma Stress. 2006; 19: 315-326
        • Kleinbaum D.G.
        Survival analysis: a self-learning text.
        1st ed. Springer, New York1996
        • Portney L.G.
        • Watkins M.P.
        Foundations of clinical research: applications to practice.
        3rd ed. Pearson/Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River2009
        • Hosmer D.W.
        • Lemeshow S.
        Applied logistic regression.
        2nd ed. Wiley, New York2000
        • Hosmer D.W.
        • Lemeshow S.
        Applied survival analysis: regression modeling of time to event data.
        1st ed. Wiley, New York1999
        • Green P.
        Word Memory Test for Windows: user’s manual and program.
        Green’s Publishing, Edmonton2003 (revised 2005)
        • Grady C.L.
        • Craik F.I.
        Changes in memory processing with age.
        Curr Opin Neurobiol. 2000; 10: 224-231