To compare the electrophysiological activity in submandibular hyolaryngeal muscles during performance of 2 exercises that incorporate resistance against muscular contraction.
Within-subject repeated-measures design.
Academic research laboratory.
Healthy, young adult women (N=26; mean age, 24.1y) without a history of dysphagia, cervical spine conditions, neurologic disease, or head/neck cancer.
Participants performed 2 isometric exercises requiring contraction against resistance to the submandibular hyolaryngeal muscles: one requiring jaw opening against a semirigid brace (chin-to-chest [CtC] exercise) and one requiring a chin tuck against an air-inflated rubber ball (chin tuck against resistance [CTAR] exercise). Measures of electrophysiology using surface electromyography (sEMG) were obtained during exercise performance.
Main Outcome Measures
Microvolts as measured from sEMG electrode sensors placed on the skin surface above the hyolaryngeal muscles (surface of skin above geniohyoid, mylohyoid, and anterior digastric). Dependent variables included peak contraction amplitude (in μV) and mean contraction amplitude (in μV) across 10 seconds of sustained contraction.
Significant effects of exercise on peak and mean contraction amplitudes were present when both exercises were compared with baseline sEMG activity. (P<.001 for both). Normalized values of peak contraction amplitude and mean contraction amplitude during performance of CtC were not significantly different compared with CTAR.
This study provides supporting evidence for the influence of 2 published exercises on motor unit recruitment in the submandibular hyolaryngeal muscles, both of which have been previously proposed as rehabilitative modalities. Theoretical and clinical implications are discussed.
List of abbreviations:CTAR (chin tuck against resistance), CtC (chin to chest), MANOVA (multivariate analysis of variance), PsEMG (peak surface electromyography), sEMG (surface electromyography), sEMGmean (mean surface electromyography), UES (upper esophageal sphincter)
To read this article in full you will need to make a payment
Purchase one-time access:Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
One-time access price info
- For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
- For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'
Subscribe:Subscribe to Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
Already an online subscriber? Sign in
Register: Create an account
Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect
- Evaluation and treatment of swallowing disorders.2nd ed. Pro Ed, Austin1998
- Effect of surface electrical stimulation of suprahyoid muscles on hyolaryngeal movement.Neuromodulation. 2009; 12: 134-140
- Biomechanical correlates of surface electromyography signals obtained during swallowing by healthy adults.J Speech Lang Hear Res. 2006; 49: 186-193
- Swallowing therapy in patients with neurological disorders causing criopharyngeal dysfunction.Dysphagia. 1993; 8: 146-149
- Rehabilitation of swallowing by exercise in tube-fed patients with pharyngeal dysphagia secondary to abnormal UES opening.Gastroenterology. 2002; 122: 1314-1321
- Electromyographic activity during the reflex pharyngeal swallow in the pig: Doty and Bosma (1956) revisited.J Appl Physiol. 2007; 102: 587-600
- An electromyographic analysis of reflex deglutition.J Neurophysiol. 1956; 19: 44-60
- Surface electromyographic characteristics of swallowing in dysphagia secondary to brainstem stroke.Dysphagia. 1997; 12: 180-187
- Neuromuscular electrical stimulation for skeletal muscle function.Yale J Biol Med. 2012; 85: 201-215
- Effortful swallowing training combined with electrical stimulation in post-stroke dysphagia: a randomized controlled study.Dysphagia. 2012; 27: 521-527
- Neuromuscular electrical stimulation versus traditional therapy in patients with Parkinson’s disease and oropharyngeal dysphagia: effects on quality of life.Dysphagia. 2012; 27: 336-345
- Transcutaneous neuromuscular electrical stimulation can improve swallowing function in patients with dysphagia caused by non-stroke diseases: a meta-analysis.J Oral Rehabil. 2013; 40: 472-480
- A randomized study comparing the Shaker exercise with traditional therapy: a preliminary study.Dysphagia. 2009; 24: 403-411
- Effects of the Mendelsohn maneuver on extent of hyoid movement and UES opening post-stroke.Dysphagia. 2013; 28: 511-519
- Effects of Mendelsohn maneuver on measures of swallowing duration post-stroke.Top Stroke Rehabil. 2012; 19: 234-243
- Chin tuck against resistance (CTAR): new method for enhancing suprahyoid muscle activity using a Shaker-type exercise.Dysphagia. 2014; 29: 243-248
- Measurement of hyolaryngeal muscle activation using surface electromyography for comparison of two rehabilitative dysphagia exercises.Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2013; 94: 2542-2548
- Surface electromyographic and electroglottographic studies in normal subjects under two swallow conditions: normal and during the Mendelsohn manuever.Dysphagia. 2002; 17: 1-12
- Submental sEMG and hyoid movement during Mendelsohn maneuver, effortful swallow, and expiratory muscle strength training.J Speech Lang Hear Res. 2008; 51: 1072-1087
- Architecture of the human jaw-closing and jaw-opening muscles.Anat Rec. 1997; 248: 464-474
- Jaw-opening exercise for insufficient opening of upper esophageal sphincter.Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2012; 93: 1995-1999
Published online: December 01, 2015
© 2016 by the American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine