Long-Term Health Service Outcomes Among Women With Traumatic Brain Injury

Published:February 20, 2015DOI:



      To (1) assess long-term health care service utilization and satisfaction with health care services among women with traumatic brain injury (W-TBI); (2) examine barriers that prevent W-TBI from receiving care when needed; and (3) understand the perceived supports available for W-TBI.


      Retrospective cohort study.




      W-TBI (n=105) 5 to 12 years postinjury and women without TBI (n=105) matched on age, education, and geographic location.


      Not applicable.

      Main Outcome Measures

      Pre- and postinjury data were collected using a questionnaire administered via a semistructured interview. Questions on health services utilization, satisfaction with and quality of services, barriers to receiving care, and perceived social support were from the Canadian Community Health Survey; additional questions on perceived social support were from another large-scale study of people with moderate to severe brain injury.


      Compared with women without TBI, W-TBI reported using more family physician and community health services. W-TBI reported that they did not receive care when needed (40%), particularly for emotional/mental health problems. Significantly more W-TBI reported financial and structural barriers. There were no significant differences in reported satisfaction with services between women with and without TBI.


      Health service providers and policymakers should recognize the long-term health and social needs of W-TBI and address societal factors that result in financial and structural barriers, to ensure access to needed services.


      List of abbreviations:

      CCHS (Canadian Community Health Survey), GCS (Glasgow Coma Scale), OR (odds ratio), TBI (traumatic brain injury), W-TBI (women with traumatic brain injury)
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