Original research| Volume 97, ISSUE 2, SUPPLEMENT , S26-S32, February 2016

Sex-Based Differences in Perceived Pragmatic Communication Ability of Adults With Traumatic Brain Injury

Published:February 05, 2015DOI:



      To identify sex-based differences in self-reported and close other–reported perceptions of communication behaviors in adults with traumatic brain injury (TBI).


      Between-groups comparison of questionnaire data from men and women with TBI and their close others.


      University academic department.


      Adults with medically documented TBI (n=160) and adults without TBI (n=81; control group) (N=241).


      Not applicable.

      Main Outcome Measure

      La Trobe Communication Questionnaire, a standardized measure of communication problems in everyday life.


      Participants with TBI endorsed more communication problems than controls (P<.001). There were no significant differences in self-ratings (P=.20) or in the ratings of close others (P=.09) in communication behaviors of men with TBI compared with women with TBI. There was no difference between the self-ratings of women with TBI and their close others (P=.59). However, men with TBI significantly underreported communication problems compared with reports of close others (P<.001).


      Women with TBI might be more accurate than men with TBI in recognizing their own pragmatic communication problems.


      List of abbreviations:

      GCS (Glasgow Coma Scale), LCQ (La Trobe Communication Questionnaire), PTA (posttraumatic amnesia)
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