Measurement Characteristics and Clinical Utility of the Cardiac Depression Scale Among Adults With Cardiac Disease

      Depression is common in adult patients with cardiac disease, with approximately 1 in 3 individuals who survive an acute myocardial infarction having some form of depression.1 Cardiac patients with depression are less likely to acknowledge their condition and have decreased motivation to follow recommended treatments, negatively affecting their recovery and overall quality of life.1
      The Cardiac Depression Scale (CDS) indexes the full spectrum of depressive symptoms in adults with cardiac disease.2 The CDS is easy to administer, requiring only pencil and paper, and no special training is necessary.2 The self-report test includes 26 items, with scores ranging from strongly disagree (1) to strongly agree (7) across a 7-point Likert scale. Items are summed for a total score ranging from a minimum of 26 to a maximum of 182; a higher score reflects more severe depressive symptoms.3 The CDS has excellent test-retest reliability and internal consistency, and for scores ≥95 excellent sensitivity and specificity.3. 4. 5. Early recognition and consequently early intervention has the potential to save lives; therefore, application of the CDS can identify patients with cardiac disease who may require further assessment and intervention.
      This Rehabilitation Measures Database summary provides a review of the psychometric properties of the CDS in adult cardiac patients. A full review of the CDS as well as reviews of over 100 other instruments can be found at
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      • 1.
        Wise FM, Harris DW, Carter L. Validation of the Cardiac Depression Scale in a cardiac rehabilitation population. J Psychosom Res 2006;60:177-83.
      • 2.
        Hare D, Davis C. Cardiac Depression Scale: validation of a new depression scale for cardiac patients. J Psychosom Res 1996;40:379-86.
      • 3.
        Birks Y, Roebuck A, Thompson D. A validation study of the Cardiac Depression Scale (CDS) in a UK population. Br J Health Psychol 2004;9:15-25.
      • 4.
        Shi WY, Stewart AG, Hare D. Major depression in cardiac patients is accurately assessed using the Cardiac Depression Scale. Psychother Psychosom 2010;79:391-2.
      • 5.
        Kiropoulos L, Meredith I, Tonkin A, Clarke D, Antonis P, Plunkett J. Psychometric properties of the Cardiac Depression Scale in patients with coronary heart disease. BMC Psychiatry 2012;12:216.
      This instrument summary is designed to facilitate the selection of outcome measures by trained clinicians. The information contained in this summary represents a sample of the peer-reviewed research available at the time of this summary's publication. The information contained in this summary does not constitute an endorsement of this instrument for clinical practice. The views expressed are those of the summary authors and do not represent those of authors' employers, instrument owner(s), the Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, the Rehabilitation Measures Database, the United States Department of Education, or the Retirement Research Foundation. The information contained in this summary has not been reviewed externally.
      The Rehabilitation Measures Database and Instrument Summary Tear-sheets are funded by the National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research, United States Department of Education through the Rehabilitation Research and Training Center on Improving Measurement of Medical Rehabilitation Outcomes (grant no. H133B090024) and the Retirement Research Foundation (grant no. 2011-027).