Advertisement

Validation of Environmental Content in the Young Children's Participation and Environment Measure

  • Mary A. Khetani
    Correspondence
    Corresponding author: Mary A. Khetani, ScD, OTR/L, Department of Occupational Therapy, Colorado State University, 222 Occupational Therapy Bldg, Fort Collins, CO 80523.
    Affiliations
    Department of Occupational Therapy, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO
    Search for articles by this author
Published:December 05, 2014DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apmr.2014.11.016

      Highlights

      • 1.
        A new proxy questionnaire combining the assessment of young children's participation in home, daycare/preschool, and community activities and perceived environmental effect on participation in each setting has been developed.
      • 2.
        The questionnaire provides valid estimates of the perceived supportiveness of a young child's environment on participation when compared with a criterion assessment that is currently being used in pediatric rehabilitation.

      Abstract

      Objective

      To evaluate the concurrent validity of the environment content in the newly developed Young Children's Participation and Environment Measure (YC-PEM).

      Design

      Cross-sectional study.

      Setting

      Data were collected online.

      Participants

      Convenience and snowball sampling methods were used to survey caregivers of children (N=381; 85 children with developmental disabilities and delays and 296 children without developmental disabilities and delays) aged 0 and 5 years (mean age, 36.49±20.18mo).

      Interventions

      Not applicable.

      Main Outcome Measures

      The YC-PEM includes an assessment of the effect of environment on children's participation for 3 settings: home, daycare/preschool, and community. Pearson and Spearman correlational analyses were used to examine the concurrent validity of the YC-PEM environmental content according to a criterion measure, the Craig Hospital Inventory of Environmental Factors–Child and Parent Version (CHIEF-CP). The YC-PEM and the CHIEF-CP items were first mapped to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health–Children and Youth Version to identify items for pairwise comparison.

      Results

      We found small to moderate negative associations for 51 of 66 pairwise comparisons involving CHIEF-CP and YC-PEM environment items (r=−.13 to −.39; P<.01). Significant associations were found for items in all 5 International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health–Children and Youth Version environmental domains.

      Conclusions

      Results lend further support for the use of the YC-PEM for valid caregiver assessment of the physical, social, attitudinal, and institutional features of environments in terms of their effect on young children's participation within the home, daycare/preschool, and community settings.

      Keywords

      List of abbreviations:

      CHIEF-CP (Craig Hospital Inventory of Environmental Factors – Child and Parent Version), ICF-CY (International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health – Children and Youth Version), YC-PEM (Young Children's Participation and Environment Measure)
      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      References

        • Dunst C.J.
        • Hamby D.
        • Trivette C.M.
        • Raab M.
        • Bruder M.B.
        Young children's participation in everyday family and community activity.
        Psychol Rep. 2002; 91: 875-897
        • Khetani M.
        • Graham J.E.
        • Alvord C.
        Community participation patterns among preschool-aged children who have received Part C early intervention services.
        Child Care Health Dev. 2013; 39: 490-499
        • The United Nations Children's Fund
        The state of the world's children.
        New York, The United Nations Children's Fund2013 (Available at) (Accessed September 12, 2014)
        • Khetani M.A.
        • Coster W.
        • Law M.
        • Bedell G.M.
        Young Children's Participation and Environment Measure (YC-PEM).
        Colorado State University, Fort Collins2013
        • McCauley D.
        • Gorter J.W.
        • Russell D.J.
        • Rosenbaum P.
        • Law M.
        • Kertoy M.
        Assessment of environmental factors in disabled children 2–12 years: development and reliability of the Craig Hospital Inventory of Environmental Factors (CHIEF) for Children–Parent Version.
        Child Care Health Dev. 2013; 39: 337-344
        • Khetani M.A.
        • Graham J.E.
        • Davies P.L.
        • Law M.C.
        • Simeonsson R.J.
        Psychometric properties of the Young Children's Participation and Environment Measure (YC-PEM).
        Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2014 Oct 18; ([Epub ahead of print])
        • Khetani M.
        • Marley J.
        • Baker M.
        • et al.
        Validity of the Participation and Environment Measure for Children and Youth (PEM-CY) for Health Impact Assessment (HIA) in sustainable development projects.
        Disabil Health J. 2014; 7: 226-235
        • Cohen J.
        Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences.
        Erlbaum, Hillsdale1988
        • Vogts N.
        • Mackey A.H.
        • Ameratunga S.
        • Stott N.S.
        Parent-perceived barriers to participation in children and adolescents with cerebral palsy.
        J Paediatr Child Health. 2010; 46: 680-685
        • Law M.
        • Petrenchik T.
        • King G.
        • Hurley P.
        Perceived environmental barriers to recreational, community, and school participation for children and youth with physical disabilities.
        Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2007; 88: 1636-1642
        • Law M.C.
        • Darrah J.
        • Pollock N.
        • et al.
        Focus on function: a cluster, randomized controlled trial comparing child- versus context-focused intervention for young children with cerebral palsy.
        Dev Med Child Neurol. 2011; 53: 621-629

      Linked Article