Original article| Volume 96, ISSUE 3, P472-477, March 2015

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Two-Minute Walk Test Performance by Adults 18 to 85 Years: Normative Values, Reliability, and Responsiveness

Published:October 25, 2014DOI:



      To provide (1) normative reference values for the 2-minute walk test (2MWT), (2) reference equations for the 2MWT, and (3) information on the reliability and responsiveness of the 2MWT across the adult lifespan.


      Cross-sectional study.


      General community settings.


      A population-based sample of adult participants (N=1137) contributed data to this study, which was part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Toolbox for the Assessment of Neurological and Behavioral Function Norming Project.


      Not applicable.

      Main Outcome Measure



      Overall, the distance participants walked ranged from 64.6 to 300.8m (mean, 180.9m). Men walked farther than did women (189.4m vs 176.0m; t=6.8; df=1,135; P<.001). Significant correlations were observed between the 2MWT and age (r=−.41), height (r=.29), weight (r=−.16), and body mass index (r=−.32). Age and body mass index were used in the linear regression modeling to predict the 2MWT distance (R2=.55–.56). Test-retest reliability of the 2MWT as characterized by the intraclass correlation coefficient was .82 (95% confidence interval, .76–.87). Based on a standard error of measurement of 15.3m, the minimum detectable change for the 2MWT was 42.5m.


      The study presents norms of the 2MWT established by the NIH Toolbox. The norms can be used to determine the presence of limitations in walking endurance across the lifespan.


      List of abbreviations:

      2MWT (2-minute walk test), 6MWT (6-minute walk test), BMI (body mass index), CI (confidence interval), ICC (intraclass correlation coefficient), MDC95 (minimum detectable change), NIH (National Institutes of Health)
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