- •Pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI) often leads to learning and memory problems.
- •Retrieval practice is a promising learning intervention for pediatric TBI patients.
- •Randomized controlled trials of retrieval practice after TBI are the next step.
To investigate whether retrieval practice (RP) is a more effective memory strategy than restudy in children and adolescents with traumatic brain injury (TBI).
Three × two within-subjects experiment: 3 (learning condition: massed restudy [MR], spaced restudy [SR], retrieval practice [RP]) × 2 (stimulus type: verbal paired associates [VPAs] and face-name pairs [FNPs]). The dependent measure was delayed recall of VPAs and FNPs.
Subacute pediatric neurorehabilitation center.
Pediatric survivors of TBI (N=15) aged 8 to 16 years with below-average memory.
During RP, participants were quizzed on to-be-learned information (VPAs and FNPs) shortly after it was presented, such that they practiced retrieval during the learning phase. MR consisted of repeated restudy (tantamount to cramming). SR consisted of restudy trials separated in time (ie, distributed learning).
Main Outcome Measures
Delayed recall of 24 VPAs and 24 FNPs after a 25-minute delay. VPAs and FNPs were equally divided across 3 learning conditions (16 per condition).
There was a large main effect of learning condition on delayed recall (P<.001; ηp2=.84), with better mean recall of VPAs and FNPs studied through RP (6.23±1.39) relative to MR (3.60±1.53; P<.001) and SR (4.77±1.39; P<.001). Moreover, RP was the single best learning strategy for every participant.
Memory problems and related academic learning difficulties are common after pediatric TBI. Herein, we identify RP as a promising and simple strategy to support learning and improve memory in children and adolescents with TBI. Our experimental findings were quite robust and set the stage for subsequent randomized controlled trials of RP in pediatric TBI.
List of abbreviations:FNP (face-name pair), MR (massed restudy), RP (retrieval practice), SR (spaced restudy), TBI (traumatic brain injury), VPA (verbal paired associate)
To read this article in full you will need to make a payment
Purchase one-time access:Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
One-time access price info
- For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
- For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'
Subscribe:Subscribe to Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
Already an online subscriber? Sign in
Register: Create an account
Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect
- Traumatic brain injury in the United States: emergency department visits, hospitalizations and deaths 2002-2006.National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Atlanta, GA2010
- Neurocognitive outcomes and recovery after pediatric TBI: meta-analytic review of the literature.Neuropsychology. 2009; 23: 283-296
- Modeling of longitudinal academic achievement scores after pediatric traumatic brain injury.Dev Neuropsychol. 2004; 25: 107-133
- Cognitive indicators of vocational outcome after severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) in childhood.Brain Inj. 1999; 13: 759-766
- Recovery in memory function, and its relationship to academic success, at 24 months following pediatric TBI.Child Neuropsychol. 2007; 13: 240-261
- An evidence-based review of cognitive and behavioral rehabilitation treatment studies in children with acquired brain injury.J Head Trauma Rehabil. 2007; 22: 248-256
- The critical role of retrieval practice in long-term retention.Trends Cogn Sci. 2011; 15: 20-27
- Retrieval practice improves memory in survivors of severe traumatic brain injury.Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2014; 95: 397-400
- Retrieval practice: a simple strategy for improving memory after traumatic brain injury.J Int Neuropsychol Soc. 2010; 16: 1147-1150
- Distributed practice in verbal recall tasks: a review and quantitative synthesis.Psychol Bull. 2006; 132: 354-380
Published online: October 10, 2014
Supported by Children's Specialized Hospital.
© 2015 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.