Advertisement

Development of Self-Report Measures of Social Attitudes That Act As Environmental Barriers and Facilitators for People With Disabilities

  • Sofia F. Garcia
    Correspondence
    Corresponding author Sofia F. Garcia, PhD, Department of Medical Social Sciences, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, 625 N Michigan Ave, Ste 2700, Chicago, IL 60611.
    Affiliations
    Department of Medical Social Sciences, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL

    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL

    Institute for Public Health and Medicine, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL
    Search for articles by this author
  • Elizabeth A. Hahn
    Affiliations
    Department of Medical Social Sciences, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL

    Institute for Public Health and Medicine, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL
    Search for articles by this author
  • Susan Magasi
    Affiliations
    Department of Occupational Therapy, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL
    Search for articles by this author
  • Jin-Shei Lai
    Affiliations
    Department of Medical Social Sciences, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL

    Institute for Public Health and Medicine, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL
    Search for articles by this author
  • Patrick Semik
    Affiliations
    Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago, Chicago, IL
    Search for articles by this author
  • Joy Hammel
    Affiliations
    Department of Occupational Therapy, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL
    Search for articles by this author
  • Allen W. Heinemann
    Affiliations
    Department of Medical Social Sciences, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL

    Institute for Public Health and Medicine, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL

    Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago, Chicago, IL

    Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL
    Search for articles by this author

      Abstract

      Objective

      To describe the development of new self-report measures of social attitudes that act as environmental facilitators or barriers to the participation of people with disabilities in society.

      Design

      A mixed-methods approach included a literature review; item classification, selection, and writing; cognitive interviews and field testing of participants with spinal cord injury (SCI), traumatic brain injury (TBI), or stroke; and rating scale analysis to evaluate initial psychometric properties.

      Setting

      General community.

      Participants

      Individuals with SCI, TBI, or stroke participated in cognitive interviews (n=9); community residents with those same conditions participated in field testing (n=305).

      Interventions

      None.

      Main Outcome Measure

      Self-report item pool of social attitudes that act as facilitators or barriers to people with disabilities participating in society.

      Results

      An interdisciplinary team of experts classified 710 existing social environment items into content areas and wrote 32 new items. Additional qualitative item review included item refinement and winnowing of the pool prior to cognitive interviews and field testing of 82 items. Field test data indicated that the pool satisfies a 1-parameter item response theory measurement model and would be appropriate for development into a calibrated item bank.

      Conclusions

      Our qualitative item review process supported a social environment conceptual framework that includes both social support and social attitudes. We developed a new social attitudes self-report item pool. Calibration testing of that pool is underway with a larger sample to develop a social attitudes item bank for persons with disabilities.

      Keywords

      List of abbreviations:

      EF (environmental factor), ICF (International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health), PROMIS (Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System), SCI (spinal cord injury), TBI (traumatic brain injury)
      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      References

        • Field M.J.
        • Jette A.M.
        • Institute of Medicine
        The future of disability in America.
        National Academies Pr, Washington (DC)2007
      1. Fougeyrollas P, Cloutier R, Bergeron H, Côté J, St Michel G. Quebec Classification: disability creation process. International Network on the Disability Creation Process. 1988. Available at: http://www.indcp.qc.ca/hdm-dcp/how-use-dcp/quebec-classification-disability-creation-process. Accessed October 15, 2013.

        • Oliver M.
        The politics of disablement.
        Macmillan Education, London1990
        • Whiteneck G.
        • Dijkers M.P.
        Difficult to measure constructs: conceptual and methodological issues concerning participation and environmental factors.
        Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2009; 90: S22-35
      2. United Nations. Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. 2006. Available at: http://www.un.org/disabilities/convention/conventionfull.shtml. Accessed October 30, 2013.

        • World Health Organization
        International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF).
        World Health Organization, Geneva2001
        • Kimberlin S.E.
        Political science theory and disability.
        J Hum Behav Soc Environ. 2009; 19: 26-43
        • Dunn D.S.
        • Burcaw S.
        Disability identity: exploring narrative accounts of disability.
        Rehabil Psychol. 2013; 58: 148-157
        • Gill C.J.
        Four types of integration in disability identity development.
        J Vocat Rehabil. 1997; 9: 39-46
        • Olkin R.
        • Pledger C.
        Can disability studies and psychology join hands?.
        Am Psychol. 2003; 58: 296-304
        • Daruwalla P.
        • Darcy S.
        Personal and societal attitudes to disability.
        Annals of Tourism Research. 2005; 32: 549-570
        • Keller C.
        • Siegrist M.
        Psychological resources and attitudes toward people with physical disabilities.
        J Appl Soc Psychol. 2010; 40: 389-401
        • Daruwalla P.S.
        Attitudes, disability and the hospitality and tourism industry: the effects of a program for changing attitudes towards people with disabilities.
        Univ of Newcastle, New South Wales (Australia)1999
        • Rao D.
        • Choi S.W.
        • Victorson D.
        • et al.
        Measuring stigma across neurological conditions: the development of the Stigma Scale for Chronic Illness (SSCI).
        Qual Life Res. 2009; 18: 585-595
        • Heinemann A.W.
        • Magasi S.
        • Hammel J.
        • et al.
        Environmental factors item development for persons with stroke, traumatic brain injury and spinal cord injury.
        Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2015; 96: 589-595
        • Whiteneck G.G.
        • Harrison-Felix C.L.
        • Mellick D.C.
        • Brooks C.A.
        • Charlifue S.B.
        • Gerhart K.A.
        Quantifying environmental factors: a measure of physical, attitudinal, service, productivity, and policy barriers.
        Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2004; 85: 1324-1335
        • Cella D.
        • Chang C.H.
        A discussion of item response theory (IRT) and its applications in health status assessment.
        Med Care. 2000; 38: 1166-1172
        • Hays R.D.
        • Morales L.S.
        • Reise S.P.
        Item response theory and health outcomes measurement in the 21st century.
        Med Care. 2000; 38: 28-42
        • Bode R.K.
        • Lai J.S.
        • Cella D.
        • Heinemann A.W.
        Issues in the development of an item bank.
        Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2003; 84: S52-60
        • Hahn E.A.
        • Cella D.
        • Bode R.K.
        • Gershon R.
        • Lai J.S.
        Item banks and their potential applications to health status assessment in diverse populations.
        Med Care. 2006; 44: S189-S197
        • Hammel J.
        • Magasi S.
        • Heinemann A.W.
        • et al.
        Environmental barriers and supports to everyday participation: a qualitative insider perspective from people with disabilities.
        Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2015; 96: 578-588
        • DeWalt D.A.
        • Rothrock N.
        • Yount S.
        • Stone A.A.
        • PROMIS Cooperative Group
        Evaluation of item candidates: the PROMIS qualitative item review.
        Med Care. 2007; 45: S12-21
        • Kincaid J.P.
        • Fishburne Jr., R.P.
        • Rogers R.L.
        • Chissom B.S.
        Derivation of new readability formulas (Automated Readability Index, Fog Count and Flesch Reading Ease Formula) for Navy enlisted personnel.
        Naval Technical Training, U.S. Naval Air Station, Millington1975 (Research Branch Report No. 8-75)
      3. Lennon C, Burdick H. The Lexile Framework as an approach for reading measurement and success. MetaMetrics, Inc. Available at: https://lexile.com. Accessed March 11, 2015.

        • Andrich D.
        Scaling attitude items constructed and scored in the Likert tradition.
        Educ Psychol Meas. 1978; 38: 665-680
        • Wright B.D.
        • Masters G.N.
        Rating scale analysis: Rasch measurement.
        MESA Pr, Chicago1985
        • Rasch G.
        Probabilistic models for some intelligence and attainment tests.
        Univ of Chicago Pr, Chicago1980
        • Linacre J.M.
        Sample size and item calibration [or person measure] stability.
        Rasch Measurement Transactions. 1994; 7: 328
        • World Health Organization
        Towards a common language for functioning, disability and health: ICF.
        World Health Organization, Geneva2002
        • Hahn E.A.
        • DeWalt D.A.
        • Bode R.K.
        • et al.
        New English and Spanish social health measures will facilitate evaluating health determinants.
        Health Psychol. 2014; 33: 490-499
        • Teasdale G.
        • Murray G.
        • Parker L.
        • Jennett B.
        Adding up the Glasgow Coma Score.
        Acta Neurochir Suppl (Wien). 1979; 28: 13-16
      4. Fougeyrollas P, Noreau L, St-Michel G, Boschen K. Measure of the Quality of the Environment (MQE) version 2.0. Lac St-Charles: International Network of the Disability Creation Process, Canadian Society for the International Classification of Impairments, Disabilities and Handicaps; 1999.

        • Solar O.
        • Irwin A.
        A conceptual framework for action on the social determinants of health. Social determinants of health discussion paper 2 (policy and practice).
        World Health Organization, Geneva2010
        • World Health Organization, Commission on Social Determinants of Health
        Closing the gap in a generation: health equity through action on the social determinants of health.
        World Health Organization, Geneva2008

      Linked Article