Mobility impairments are among the most common symptoms reported by individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS),1 with prevalence rates ranging from about 50% to >90%.2 Fewer than 50% of people with MS walk unaided.3 Gait abnormalities are found in individuals with early MS4 and those minimally affected by the disease5; yet, people with MS can remain ambulatory for 10 to 20 years and more.6 Those with more disability (Expanded Disability Status Scale scores 3–5) are at moderate risk of developing gait limitations in 10 years, with half requiring an assistive device.6 Thus, measuring mobility is a common component of the examination of patients with MS. The 12-Item MS Walking Scale7 (MSWS-12) is a self-report measure of the impact of MS on walking ability. Two versions exist; this summary pertains to the original version. The MSWS-12 can be administered in less than 10 minutes; each item is rated on a 1–5 point scale (1 = no limitation and 5 = extreme limitation) and the score is transformed to a 0–100 point scale. Data support its reliability, validity, and responsiveness.
Please address all correspondence to Diane Allen, PhD, at University of California San Francisco/San Francisco State University ( [email protected]
) or Kirsten Potter, PT, DPT, MS, NCS at Rockhurst University ( [email protected]
Peterson EW, Cho CC, Koch L, et al. Injurious falls among middle aged and older adults with multiple sclerosis. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2008;89:1031-7.
Sutliff MH. Contribution of impaired mobility to patient burden in multiple sclerosis. Curr Med Res Opin 2010;28:109-19.
Swingler RJ, Compston DAS. The morbidity of multiple sclerosis. QJM 1992;83:325-37.
Martin CL, Phillips BA, Kilpatrick TJ, et al. Gait and balance impairment in early multiple sclerosis in the absence of clinical disability. Multiple Sclerosis 2006;12:620-8.
Benedetti MG, Piperno R, Simoncini L, et al. Gait abnormalities in minimally impaired multiple sclerosis patients. Multiple Sclerosis 1999;5:363-38.
Pittock SJ, Mayr WT, McClelland RL, et al. Change in MS-related disability in a population-based cohort. Neurology 2004;62:51-9.
Hobart JC, Riazi A, Lamping DL, Fitzpatrick R, Thompson AJ. Measuring the impact of MS on walking ability: the 12-item MS Walking Scale (MSWS-12). Neurol 2003;60:31-6.
McGuigan C, Hutchinson M. Confirming the validity and responsiveness of the Multiple Sclerosis Walking Scale-12 (MSWS-12). Neurol 2004;62:2103-5.
Cavanaugh JT, Gappmaier VO, Dibble LE, Gappmaier E. Ambulatory activity in individuals with multiple sclerosis. J Neurol Phys Ther 2011;35:26-33.
Goldman MD, Marrie RA, Cohen JA. Evaluation of the six-minute walk in multiple sclerosis subjects and healthy controls. Mult Scler 2008;14:383-90.
Motl RW, Dlugonski D, Suh Y, et al. Multiple Sclerosis Walking Scale-12 and oxygen cost of walking. Gait Posture 2010;31:506-10.
Motl RW, Snook EM. Confirmation and extension of the validity of the Multiple Sclerosis Walking Scale-12 (MSWS-12). J Neurol Sci 2008;268:69-73.
Sosnoff JJ, Weikert M, Dlugonski D, Smith DC, Motl RW. Quantifying gait impairment in multiple sclerosis using GAITRite™ technology. Gait Posture 2011;34:145-7.
Nilsagard Y, Lundholm C, Denison E, Gunnarsson LG. Predicting accidental falls in people with multiple sclerosis--a longitudinal study. Clin Rehabil. 2009;23:259-69.
Motl RW, McAuley E, Mullen S. Longitudinal measurement invariance of the Multiple Sclerosis Walking Scale-12. J Neurol Sci 2011;305:75-9.
Riazi A, Thompson AJ, Hobart JC. Self-efficacy predicts self-reported health status in multiple sclerosis. Mult Scler 2004;10:61-6.
This instrument summary is designed to facilitate the selection of outcome measures by trained clinicians. The information contained in this summary represents a sample of the peer-reviewed research available at the time of this summary's publication. The information contained in this summary does not constitute an endorsement of this instrument for clinical practice. The views expressed are those of the summary authors and do not represent those of authors' employers, instrument owner(s), the Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, the Rehabilitation Measures Database, or the United States Department of Education. The information contained in this summary has not been reviewed externally.
The Rehabilitation Measures Database and Instrument Summary Tear-sheets are funded by the National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research, United States Department of Education through the Rehabilitation Research and Training Center on Improving Measurement of Medical Rehabilitation Outcomes (H133B090024).
© 2013 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.