Main Outcome Measure
List of Abbreviations:ARAT (Action Research Arm Test), BI (Barthel Index), NMES (neuromuscular electrical stimulation), sNMES (surface neuromuscular electrical stimulation)
Purchase one-time access:Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
One-time access price info
- For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
- For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'
Subscribe:Subscribe to Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
- Recovery of motor function following stroke: profile and predictors.Physiother Canada. 1982; 34: 77-84
- Recovery of upper extremity function in stroke patients: the Copenhagen Stroke Study.Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1994; 75: 394-398
- The restoration of motor function following hemiplegia in man.Brain. 1951; 74: 443-480
- Contractures in the post stroke wrist: a pilot study of its time course of development and its association with upper limb recovery.Clin Rehabil. 2003; 17: 88-95
- National clinical guidelines for stroke.3rd ed. Royal College of Physicians, London2008
- Therapeutic electrical stimulation to improve motor control and functional abilities of the upper extremity after stroke: a systematic review.Clin Rehabil. 2002; 16: 350-360
- Does the application of constraint-induced movement therapy during acute rehabilitation reduce arm impairment after ischemic stroke?.Stroke. 2000; 31: 2984-2988
- Electrical stimulation for preventing and treating post-stroke shoulder pain.Clin Rehabil. 2001; 15: 5-19
- Electrical stimulation of the wrist extensors in post-stroke hemiplegia.Stroke. 1999; 30: 1384-1389
- Effects of electrical stimulation on flexion contractures in the hemiplegic wrist.Clin Rehabil. 1997; 11: 123-130
- A pilot study investigating the effects of electrical stimulation on the wrist extensors on upper limb impairment and function in an acute stroke population.Abstracts of the 13th European Congress of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine. 2002 May 28-31; (Brighton, UK): 298-299
- An approach to standardise, quantify and progress routine upper limb therapy for the stroke subjects: the Action Medical Research Upper Limb Therapy protocol.Hand Ther. 2009; 14: 60-68
- A pilot study to investigate the effects of electrical stimulation on recovery of hand function and sensation in subacute stroke patients.Neuromodulation. 2005; 8: 193-202
- A performance test for assessment of upper limb function in physical rehabilitation treatment and research.Int J Rehabil Res. 1981; 4: 483-492
- Functional evaluation: the Barthel index.Md State Med J. 1965; 14: 61-65
- Analysis of serial measurements in medical research.BMJ. 1990; 300: 230-235
- Spasticity and contractures at the wrist after stroke: time course of development and their association with functional recovery of the upper limb.Clin Rehabil. 2011; 25: 184-191
- Physical therapy interventions for patients with stroke in inpatient rehabilitation facilities.Phys Ther. 2005; 85: 238-248
- Electrostimulation for promoting recovery of movement or functional ability after stroke.Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2006; (CD003241)
- Modification of motor control of wrist extension by mesh-glove electrical afferent stimulation in stroke patients.Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1996; 77: 252-258
- Two theories of muscle strength augmentation using percutaneous electrical stimulation.Phys Ther. 1990; 70: 158-164
- Arm function after stroke—an evaluation of grip strength as a measure of recovery and a prognostic indicator.J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1989; 52: 1267-1272
- Changes in intracortical excitability induced by stimulation of wrist afferents in man.J Physiol. 2001; 534: 891-902
- Dose-response relation between neuromuscular electrical stimulation and upper-extremity function in patients with stroke.Stroke. 2010; 41: 821-824
Rosewilliam is now at the School of Health and Population Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK, and Malhotra is now at the Department of Emergency Medicine, SUNY Downstate Medical Center and Kings County Hospital, Brooklyn, NY.
Funded by Action Medical Research and Barnwood House Trust (AP0993).
No commercial party having a direct financial interest in the results of the research supporting this article has or will confer a benefit on the authors or on any organization with which the authors are associated.
Clinical Trial Registration No.: ISRCTN34651260.
In-press corrected proof published online on Jul 25, 2012, at www.archives-pmr.org.