Advertisement

Electric Pulse Frequency and Magnitude of Perceived Sensation During Electrocutaneous Forearm Stimulation

      Abstract

      Jelinek HF, McIntyre R. Electric pulse frequency and magnitude of perceived sensation during electrocutaneous forearm stimulation.

      Objectives

      To investigate the effect that electric pulse frequency has on the perceived magnitude of sensation and to quantify the relationship between electric pulse frequency and perceived magnitude of sensation during low-intensity electrocutaneous stimulation.

      Design

      A repeated-measures research design was applied to evaluate the effect of electric pulse frequency on the perceived magnitude of electrocutaneous stimulation.

      Setting

      Electrocutaneous agents laboratory.

      Participants

      University students (N=26) with normal hearing and normal sensation were recruited for the study.

      Interventions

      Electrocutaneous stimulation was applied to the forearm at 10 electric pulse frequencies.

      Main Outcome Measures

      A cross-modality matching procedure was used in which stimulation intensity was matched with the level of loudness. Pairwise comparisons with 2 degrees of freedom at a power of 80% was performed. Statistical significance was set at P equal to .05.

      Results

      Electric pulse frequency had a significant effect on the perceived magnitude of sensation, with the perceived sensation growing between 0 and 120Hz (F=36.02; P<.001). The relationship between the 2 variables was strong (r2=.99; P<.01).

      Conclusions

      Increasing the electric pulse frequency of electrocutaneous stimulation increases the perceived magnitude of the resulting sensation. This has implications for the use of electrocutaneous stimulation for both analgesia and muscle stimulation.

      Key Words

      List of Abbreviations:

      CMM (cross-modality matching)
      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      References

        • Kahn J.
        Principles and practice of electrotherapy.
        4th ed. Churchill Livingstone, New York2000
        • Palmer S.T.
        • Martin D.J.
        • Steedman W.M.
        • Ravey J.
        Alteration of interferential current and transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation frequency: effects on nerve excitation.
        Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1999; 80: 1065-1071
        • Walsh D.M.
        TENS: clinical applications and related theory.
        Churchill Livingstone, New York1997
        • Rollman G.B.
        Electrocutaneous stimulation.
        Psychonomic Society, Austin1974
        • Woolf C.J.
        Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation and the reaction to experimental pain in human subjects.
        Pain. 1979; 7: 115-127
        • Uttal W.R.
        • Krissoff M.
        Response of the somesthetic system to patterned trains of electrical stimuli.
        in: Kenshalo D.R. The skin senses. Thomas, Springfield1968: 262-303
        • Woolf C.
        • Thompson J.W.
        Stimulation-induced analgesia: transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) and vibration.
        in: Wall P.D. Melzack R. Textbook of pain. 3rd ed. Churchill Livingstone, London1994: 1191-1208
        • Alon G.
        • Allin J.
        • Inbar G.F.
        Optimization of pulse duration and pulse charge during transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation.
        Aust J Physiother. 1983; 29: 195-201
        • Reilly J.P.
        Applied bioelectricity: from electrical stimulation to electropathology.
        Springer, New York1998
        • Sachs R.M.
        • Miller J.D.
        • Grant K.W.
        Perceived magnitude of multiple electrocutaneous pulses.
        Percept Psychophys. 1980; 28: 255-262
        • Johnson M.I.
        • Ashton C.H.
        • Bousfield D.R.
        • Thompson J.W.
        Analgesic effects of different frequencies of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation on cold-induced pain in normal subjects.
        Pain. 1989; 39: 231-236
        • Prior R.E.
        • Lyman J.
        • Case P.A.
        • Scott C.M.
        Supplementary sensory feedback for the VA/NU myoelectric hand—background and preliminary designs.
        Bull Prosthet Res. 1976; 26: 170-191
        • Szeto A.Y.
        Relationship between pulse rate and pulse width for a constant-intensity level of electrocutaneous stimulation.
        Ann Biomed Eng. 1985; 13: 373-383
        • Roche P.A.
        • Gijsbers K.
        • Belch J.J.
        • Forbes C.D.
        Modification of induced ischaemic pain by transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation.
        Pain. 1984; 20: 45-52
        • Foster N.E.
        • Baxter F.
        • Walsh D.M.
        • Baxter G.D.
        • Allen J.M.
        Manipulation of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation variables has no effect on two models of experimental pain in humans.
        Clin J Pain. 1996; 12: 301-310
        • Jette D.U.
        Effect of different forms of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation on experimental pain.
        Phys Ther. 1986; 66: 187-190
        • Lockwood S.
        The variable parameters of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) and their clinical use.
        N Z J Physiother. 1996; 24: 7-10
        • Walsh D.M.
        • Lowe A.S.
        • McCormack K.
        • Willer J.
        • Baxter G.D.
        • Allen J.M.
        Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation: effect on peripheral nerve conduction, mechanical pain threshold, and tactile threshold in humans.
        Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1998; 79: 1051-1058
        • Ward A.R.
        Electricity fields and waves in therapy.
        Science Pr, Sydney1986
        • Low J.
        • Reed A.
        Electrotherapy explained: principles and practice.
        3rd ed. Butterworth Heinemann, Oxford2000
        • Delitto A.
        • Snyder-Mackler L.
        • Robinson A.J.
        Electrical stimulation of muscle: techniques and applications.
        in: Robinson A.J. Snyder-Mackler L. Clinical electrophysiology: electrotherapy and electrophysiologic testing. 2nd ed. Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore1995: 121-154